Clinical Neuroscience

[Help! Accumulation of manuscripts!]

TAJTI János, RAJNA Péter

MARCH 25, 2015

Clinical Neuroscience - 2015;68(03-04)

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Teriflunomide: new oral immunmodulant drug in therapy of multiple sclerosis]

BENCSIK Krisztina, RÓZSA Csilla, VÉCSEI László

[Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the autoimmune, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). There are nine drugs available in Hungary reimbursed by the National Health Insurance Fund of Hungary (OEP) to reduce the activity of the disease, from which seven can be used as first line therapies. We have approximately 20 years of experience with the interferon b-1a/1b and glatiramer-acetate products. Though in case of approximately 30% of the patients using one of the first line drugs, the disease remains active, that we call break-through disease. The reasons for break-through disease could be the insufficient adherence and compliance, the appearance of neutralizing antibodies or the high activity of the disease. One of the oral immunomodulating drugs for MS, teriflunomide, was registered in Europe in 2013. Because of the anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effect of teriflunomide, it can be used for the reduction of the disease activity in the relapsing-remitting course of MS. The effect of teriflunomide was proved in one Phase II. and four Phase III. (TEMSO, TOWER, TENERE, TOPIC) studies. Teriflunomide 14 mg once daily was able to demonstrate in two consecutive placebo-controlled phase 3 clinical trials that significantly reduces the relapse rate (31.5% and 36.3%) and in both studies significantly reduces the sustained disability progression (29.8% and 31.5%) moreover delays the appearance of the clinically definitive MS in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). According to the TENERE study there were no significant differences observed between teriflunomide 14 mg and IFNb-1a s.c. in time to failure and annualized relapse rate but the treatment satisfaction domains of global satisfaction, side-effects and convenience were significantly improved with teriflunomide compared with s.c. IFNb-1a. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Proconvulsive effect of antiepileptic drugs]

KELEMEN Anna

[Antiepileptic drugs can provoke and worsen seizures, what is called paradoxical effect. Paradoxical seizure worsening can occur as a nonspecific manifestation of drug intoxication in number of antiepileptic drugs. The other type is a specific type, when antiepileptic drugs with pure GABAergic and sodium channel blocker mechanism of action provoke myoclonic, absence and atonic seizures in specific epilepsy syndromes, mainly in idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Antiepileptic drug-induced exacerbation of seizures is a common, often unrecognized clinical problem, which can be avoided by a careful syndromic diagnosis and by using broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Drug therapy of neuropathic pain in mirror of latest reccommandations]

KISS Gábor

[Neuropathic pain is considered as a special type of different pain conditions. It’s pathophysiological basis and treatment is completely different from the nociceptive pain. The first comprehensive therapeutic guidelines published approximately a decade ago recommended tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and opioids. The recent summary presents and evaluates national and international guidelines issued in the last five years. The most frequently suggested drugs by all guidelines are amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin and pregabalin. Pregabalin is the only drug that is recommended first line in all guidelines referred. Opioids are in the second or third line. There seems to be no major development in the pharmacological treatment of the neuropathic pain compared to the earlier recommendations. High quality studies of head to head comparisons and effectiveness of combination therapy are still lacking.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Do previous offences predict violent acts in psychiatric patients? A retrospective study in Hungary]

BARAN Brigitta, SZABÓ Ádám Ferenc, KARA Borbála, KOVÁCS Magdolna, UZONYI Adél, ANTAL Albert, UNGVARI S Gabor, GAZDAG Gábor

[Aim - To investigate the presence of offences in the previous past history of perpetrators of violent acts who have undergone forced medical treatment. Methods - The documentation of all patients released over a 10-year period from the National Institute of Forensic Psychiatry (IMEI) was reviewed. A comparison was drawn between patients who were convicted of any type of offense before the violent act (patients with previous offences-PPO) and those who were not (patients with no previous offences-PNO). Results - Eighty-six (29%) and 208 (71%) patients formed the PPO and PNO groups, respectively. Prior contact with psychiatric services was significantly higher in the PPO group (p=0.038) and this group was also more likely to offend under the influence of a psychoactive substance (p<0.001). Exceptional brutality and other qualifying factors were more frequent in the PNO group (p=0.019). Conclusion - As IMEI is the only forensic institution in Hungary, the picture presented here reflects the situation in the entire country. A recidivism rate of 29% is within the internationally published range. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Effects of maternal epilepsy and antiepileptic therapy in women during pregnancy]

VANYA Melinda, ÁRVA-NAGY Nóra, SZILI Károly, SZOK Délia, BÁRTFAI György

[Objective - The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of epilepsy and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment on pregnancy and the perinatal outcome, retrospectively. Methods - We examined the obstetric and fetal outcomes among women with epilepsy (WWE), who were followed-up at the Department of Neurology, and who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (n=91) between 31th December 2000 and 31th March 2014. Statistical comparisons of different obstetric and fetal parameters on a sample of 91 WWE and 182 non-WWE were assessed by the chi-square-test, the independent sample t-test. Results - The rate of major congenital malformations (MCMS) among the newborns of all AEDs exposed mothers was 7.69%. There were three peaks of seizures: during the third trimester, during delivery and in the puerperium. The prevalence of miscarriages, post-term birth and the rate of caesarean section were significantly higher among the WWE than among the non-WWE (p=0.001; p<0.001; p=0.02). Parameters of neonates (birth weight, birth length, head-, and chest circumference) were significantly different between the WWE group and the non-WWE group (p=0.003, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001) Conclusions - In contrast with recent publications, there were significant differences in the parameters of neonates between the two groups. Our results are in accordance with those of previous studies from the aspect of AED-related MCM, the elevated risk of miscarriages and pre-existing hypertension. ]

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[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KRABÓTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]

RAJNA Péter

[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[LADA type diabetes, celiac diasease, cerebellar ataxia and stiff person syndrome. A rare association of autoimmune disorders]

SOÓS Zsuzsanna, SALAMON Mónika, ERDEI Katalin, KASZÁS Nóra, FOLYOVICH András, SZŰCS Anna, BARCS Gábor, ARÁNYI Zsuzsanna, SKALICZKI József, VADASDI Károly, WINKLER Gábor

[Celiac disease - in its typical form - is a chronic immunemediated enteropathy with typical clinical symptoms that develops against gliadin content of cereal grains, and is often associated with other autoimmune diseases. In cases of atypical manifestation classic symptoms may be absent or mild, and extra-intestinal symptoms or associated syndromes dominate clinical picture. The authors present a longitudinal follow-up of such a case. A 63-years old woman was diagnosed with epilepsy at the age of 19, and with progressive limb ataxia at the age of 36, which was initially thought to be caused by cerebellar atrophy, later probably by stiff person syndrome. At the age 59, her diabetes mellitus manifested with type 2 diabetic phenotype, but based on GAD positivity later was reclassified as type 1 diabetes. Only the last check-up discovered the celiac disease, retrospectively explaining the entire disease course and neurological symptoms. By presenting this case, the authors would like to draw attention to the fact that one should think of the possibility of celiac disease when cerebellar ataxia, progressive neurological symptoms and diabetes are present at the same time. An early diagnosis may help to delay the progression of disease and help better treatment.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Education and psychological support of parents in cases of postnatally detected Down syndrome]

MÁTÉ Orsolya, KÍVÉS Zsuzsanna, OLÁH András, FULLÉR Noémi, PAKAI Annamária

[OBJECTIVE - Since the 60’s several publications dealt with the phenomenon how physicians inform parents of newborns about postnatal recognition of Down’s syndrome and the support they receive right after breaking the bad news. Howe - ver, the rest of these studies concentrated on surveying parental satisfaction, while relatively few international studies deal with the other side of the communicational situation, the opinion of the informer. Our study focused on the circumstances of parental information in Hungarian institutions of obstetrics in order to evaluate the possibilities for interventions. METHODS - The Down’s team operating at the University of Pécs Faculty of Health Sciences carried out a national survey in 2005 - an interview-based questionnaire filled by physicians of institutions of obstetrics - with the help of the National Register for Congenital Diseases of the National Centre for Epidemiology and Down’s Foun dation. RESULTS - The coverage of the survey reached 74%. Rest of the surveyed institutions did not have information protocol, however, 70% of them believes it would be necessary. Only 44% of the physicians received communication training and 81% of them believe they can manage communication, 33% have felt that the mother of a newborn with Down’s syndrome would expect special help that the institutions are unable to provide. CONCLUSION - There are serious problems with the circumstances of parental informing in Hungarian institutions of obstetrics. This situation would obviously require intervention. An aimed communicational training based on international experience and exploiting the openness of physicians, as well as the establishment of information protocol could be elements of such intervention.]