Clinical Neuroscience

[Glioma behaviour in tissue culture III. Comparative study of in vivo irradiated gliomas ]

ZOLTÁN László1, PÁLYI Irén1, ÁFRA Dénes1

JULY 01, 1963

Clinical Neuroscience - 1963;16(07)

[1. We performed a comparative study of four gliomas after first and recurrent surgery. Simultaneous tissue culture of the surgical material was performed. 2. Two patients operated on with glioblastoma multiforme and one with astrocytoma malignum received radiotherapy after the first surgery, whereas one patient operated on with astrocytoma malignum did not receive radiotherapy. 3. Irradiation resulted in a reduction in the ability of tumour cells to grow for longer periods of time in tissue culture, which was already reflected in the degeneration that occurred. The decrease in biological activity of irradiated tumour cells can be considered as a consequence of the radiation effect. 4. In one case, a malignant lesion was observed in non-irradiated tumour tissue after histological processing during recurrent surgery. 5. In one case, the activity of the tumour tissue removed at the first surgery showed a malignant astrocytoma in culture, which predicted a malignant lesion in the tissue removed at the second surgery. ]


  1. Országos Idegsebészeti Tudományos Intézet, Budapesti Orvostudományi Egyetem Szövet- és Fejlődéstani Intézet



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Clinical group psychotherapy for neurotics]

HIDAS György

[Group psychotherapy uses a whole with new characteristics, created by the human social relationships and mutual interaction between the patients and the psychotherapist doctor, to heal. The conscious behaviour and psychotherapeutic work of the doctor play a crucial role. Psychotherapeutic groups for neurotic patients in hospital are open, heterogeneous, with 6-8 members Group psychotherapy is not only a therapeutic method but also a diagnostic one, and the development of interpersonal relationships is observed in statu nascendi. The structure of a psychotherapeutic group in a hospital setting is determined by the neurotic tendency factor and the need for addiction. This creates a formation centred around the group leader. A crucial stage of therapy is the transformation of the group structure into a group-centred group. This requires and brings with it the patients' sense of autonomy, active work and a greater sense of responsibility. A psychotherapy group is also a "working group", which works on solving the problems that arise in order to achieve recovery. There is a conflict between the working group and the need for addiction, with the psychotherapeutic doctor as the dynamic point of conflict. The doctor's task is to create a tolerant atmosphere in the group, to establish the modus operandi and to keep the group psychotherapy process moving with his interpretations. An optimal degree of negative or positive emotional tension is required in group psychotherapy. One source of negative tension is the conflict between the patient's need to receive and the doctor's refusal to do so. Therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy are: positive emotions between the doctor and the patient, universalisation, catharsis, reflective reactions, interpretations, intellectual and emotional insight, self-awareness and enrichment of knowledge, counselling, group reality testing. In the course of group psychotherapy, healthy, self-healing forces are mobilised, healthy adaptability increases, a sense of community is extended, and feelings of isolation are reduced. The doctor is involved in the group psychotherapy process in an emotional way. This is necessary in order to help patients adequately, but his perception may be disturbed by his emotions. The participation of an observing physician in a group psychotherapy session is a support and learning experience for the therapist. The results of group psychotherapy are: patients get to know each other better, the patient-physician relationship becomes more intense. The psychotherapeutic atmosphere of the ward is improved by channeling the patients' conflicts with the hospital and with each other. The patients' sense of community is strengthened and their interpersonal relationships improve. There is an opportunity to change the neurotic way of coping. The spontaneous interaction of patients, which often leads to negative effects, is used for healing in hospital through conscious intervention and guidance in group psychotherapy. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Data on temporal lobe symptomatology Pick's atrophy ]


[Three cases of Pick's atrophy in which atrophy spread from the primary shrinkage center in temporopolar to T, T, and Tz are described. Individual differences in the further pathway of atrophy were discernible: in case 1, it extended only to the frontal basis, in case 2, it extended additionally to F, and in case 3, it extended, albeit to a small extent, to the whole frontal convexity. In the first two cases, the atrophy was more pronounced on the left side, in the third on the right. The symptoms were partly the same in all three cases according to the common pathological lesions and partly variable from case to case according to the specific pathological lesions and the predominance of laterality. Common symptoms included initial mnestic disruption and subsequent severe dementia associated with bilateral temporal lobe atrophy and personality changes upon spread to the frontal base. Aphasic symptoms are modified not only by the predominance of the lesion on the lesion side, but also by the frontal spread. The aphasia in the period of temporal atrophy is transcortical motor typus; this was accompanied by echolalia in case 2 when the frontal supplementary motor regio was impaired. The "oral tendencies" and hypersexuality in our case 3 are similar to Klüver-Bucy syndrome and are probably related to particularly severe bilateral temporal atrophy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The "benign" form of multiple sclerosis]


[62 patients with multiple sclerosis are reported to be in the "benign" group of the disease. Cases of each of the three subgroups are described. Methods (palliative care, rehabilitation plan, etc.) are discussed to hope for a favourable outcome: stabilisation of the disease, making it stationary. The need to set up convalescent resorts and rehabilitation centres is stressed. Examples of the former are TB sanatoria and the latter poliomyelitis outpatient clinics.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Minutes of the meeting]


[The VI. scientific meeting of the Hungarian EEG Society was held in Budapest on 8-9 February 1963. of the VI. meeting of the EEG.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

NÉMETH Klára Zsófia, SZÛCS Anna , VITRAI József , JUHÁSZ Dóra , NÉMETH Pál János , HOLLÓ András

We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

CAKAR Emel Nafiye, YILMAZBAS Pınar

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]