Clinical Neuroscience

[“From brain - through mind - to society“ XIII. International Semmelweis Symposium]

JULY 10, 2004

Clinical Neuroscience - 2004;57(07-08)



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Prognosis and classification of hypertensive striatocapsular haemorrhages]


[Introduction - Nontraumatic intracerebral haemorrhage accounts for 10 to 15% of all cases of stroke. Patients and method - In our study hypertensive striatocapsular haemorrhages were divided into six types on the basis of arterial territories: posterolateral, lateral, posteromedial, middle, anterior and massive (where the origin of the hemorrhage can not be defined due to the extensive damage of the striatocapsular region) type. We analysed laboratory data, clinical presentations and risk factors as alcoholism, smoking and hypertension of 111 cases. The size of the hematoma, midline shift and severity of ventricular propagation were measured on the acute CT-scan. The effect on the 30-day clinical outcome of these parameters were examined Results and conclusion - According to our results, the most important risk factor of hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage was chronic alcoholism. Blood cholesterol, triglyceride levels and coagulation status had no effect on the prognosis, but high blood glucose levels Significantly worsen the clinical outcome. In our study, lateral striatocapsular haemorrhage was the most common while middle one was the least common type. The overall mortality is 42%, but differs by the type. The 30-day outcome significantly depends on the type of the haemorrhage, the initial level of consiousness, the size of the haematoma, the severity of ventricular propagation, the midline shift and the blood glucose levels. The clinical outcome proved to be the best in the anterior type, good in the posteromedial and lateral types. The prognosis of the massive type is poor. In our study, the classes and the mortality of the striatocapsular haemorrhages was different from the literature data. The higher mortality in our cohort could be due to the longer follow-up and the severe accompanying diseases of our patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Alcohol as a risk factor for hemorrhagic stroke (in English language)]

DANIEL Sajjan Bereczki Dániel

[Purpose - Whereas the protective effect of mild-to-moderate alcohol consumption against ischemic stroke has been well recognized, there is conflicting evidence regarding the link between alcohol consumption and hemorrhagic strokes. The aim of the present study is to summarize the results of case-control and cohort studies published on this issue. Methods - Recent epidemiologic articles on the relationship between alcohol consumption and hemorrhagic stroke were identified by Medline searches limited to title words using the following search terms: ”alcohol AND cerebrovascular dis*”, ”alcohol AND stroke”, ”alcohol AND cerebral hemorrhage” and ”alcohol AND hemorrhagic stroke”. Results - Most case-control and cohort studies either repor-ted only on total strokes or on a combined group of hemorr-hagic strokes including intracerebral as well as subarachnoid hemorrhages. There was a consensus among reports that heavy alcohol consumption was associated with a higher risk of hemorrhagic strokes. Controversy remains regarding the effect of mild-to-moderate alcohol consumption: while some studies reported a protective effect, others found a dose-dependent linear relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. The differential effect of moderate alcohol consumption on hemorrhagic compared to ischemic strokes is mostly attributed to alcohol- and withdrawal- induced sudden elevations of blood pressure, and coagulation disorders. Conclusions - Heavy drinking should be considered as one of the risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke. In contrast to the protective effect of mild-to-moderate alcohol use against ischemic strokes, moderate drinking might result in an increased risk of hemorrhagic strokes.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Society members]

Clinical Neuroscience

[PhD thesis Asphyxia-induced brain oedema formation in newborn pigs: a particular role for histamine]


Clinical Neuroscience

[Myasthenia in a patient with sarcoidosis and schizophrenia (in English language)]

RÓZSA Csilla, KIS Gábor, KOMOLY Sámuel

[A 44-year-old male patient was hospitalised with paranoid schizophrenia in 1985. Depot neuroleptic treatment was started which successfully prevented further psychotic relapses for the next ten years. His myasthenia gravis started with bulbar signs in 1997 and the symptoms soon became generalized. The diagnosis of myasthenia gravis was confirmed by electromyography, by positive anticholinesterase test and by the detection of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies in the serum. Mediastinal CT examination showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes on the left but no thymic pathology was observed. Mediastinoscopy was performed and biopsies were obtained from the affected nodes. Histology revealed sarcoidosis. The patient suffered respiratory crisis following the thoracic intervention (in September 1998). Combined oral corticosteroid (64 mg methylprednisolone/e.o.d.) and azathioprine (150 mg/day) treatment regimen was initiated and complete remission took place in both the myasthenic symptoms and the sarcoidosis. The follow-up CT scans showed no mediastinal pathology (January 2000). During steroid treatment a transient psychotic relapse occured which was successfully managed by supplemental haloperidol medication added to his regular depot neuroleptics. The patient currently takes 150 mg/day azathioprine and receives 40 mg/month flupentixol depot im. His physical and mental status are stable and he has been completely symptome free in the last 24 months. The association of myasthenia gravis and sarcoidosis is very rare. To our best knowledge no case has been reported of a patient suffering from myasthenia gravis, sarcoidosis, and schizophrenia at the same time.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

Clinical Neuroscience

Simultaneous subdural, subarachnoideal and intracerebral haemorrhage after rupture of a peripheral middle cerebral artery aneurysm


The cause of intracerebral, subarachnoid and subdural haemorrhage is different, and the simultaneous appearance in the same case is extremely rare. We describe the case of a patient with a ruptured aneurysm on the distal segment of the middle cerebral artery, with a concomitant subdural and intracerebral haemorrhage, and a subsequent secondary brainstem (Duret) haemorrhage. The 59-year-old woman had hypertension and diabetes in her medical history. She experienced anomic aphasia and left-sided headache starting one day before admission. She had no trauma. A few minutes after admission she suddenly became comatose, her breathing became superficial. Non-contrast CT revealed left sided fronto-parietal subdural and subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhage, and bleeding was also observed in the right pontine region. The patient had leucocytosis and hyperglycemia but normal hemostasis. After the subdural haemorrhage had been evacuated, the patient was transferred to intensive care unit. Sepsis developed. Echocardiography did not detect endocarditis. Neurological status, vigilance gradually improved. The rehabilitation process was interrupted by epileptic status. Control CT and CT angiography proved an aneurysm in the peripheral part of the left middle cerebral artery, which was later clipped. Histolo­gical examination excluded mycotic etiology of the aneu­rysm and “normal aneurysm wall” was described. The brain stem haemorrhage – Duret bleeding – was presumably caused by a sudden increase in intracranial pressure due to the supratentorial space occupying process and consequential trans-tentorial herniation. This case is a rarity, as the patient not only survived, but lives an active life with some residual symptoms.

Clinical Neuroscience

Life threatening rare lymphomas presenting as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis: a diagnostic challenge

TOLVAJ Balázs, HAHN Katalin, NAGY Zsuzsanna, VADVÁRI Árpád, CSOMOR Judit, GELPI Ellen, ILLÉS Zsolt, GARZULY Ferenc

Background and aims – Description of two cases of rare intravascular large B-cell lymphoma and secondary T-cell lymphoma diagnosed postmortem, that manifested clinically as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). We discuss causes of diagnostic difficulties, deceptive radiological and histological investigations, and outline diagnostic procedures based on our and previously reported cases. Case reports – Our first case, a 48-year-old female was admitted to the neurological department due to paraparesis. MRI suggested LETM, but the treatments were ineffective. She died after four weeks because of pneumonia and untreatable polyserositis. Pathological examination revealed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Our second case, a 61-year-old man presented with headache and paraparesis. MRI showed small bitemporal lesions and lesions suggesting LETM. Diagnostic investigations were unsuccessful, including tests for possible lymphoma (CSF flow cytometry and muscle biopsy for suspected IVL). Chest CT showed focal inflammation in a small area of the lung, and adrenal adenoma. Brain biopsy sample from the affected temporal area suggested T-cell mediated lymphocytic (paraneoplastic or viral) meningoencephalitis and excluded diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The symptoms worsened, and the patient died in the sixth week of disease. The pathological examination of the presumed adenoma in the adrenal gland, the pancreatic tail and the lung lesions revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, as did the brain and spinal cord lesions. Even at histological examination, the T-cell lymphoma had the misleading appearance of inflammatory condition as did the MRI. Conclusion – Lymphoma can manifest as LETM. In cases of etiologically unclear atypical LETM in patients older than 40 years, a random skin biopsy (with subcutaneous adipose tissue) from the thigh and from the abdomen is strongly recommended as soon as possible. This may detect IVL and provide the possibility of prompt chemotherapy. In case of suspicion of lymphoma, parallel examination of the CSF by flow cytometry is also recommended. If skin biopsy is negative but lymphoma suspicion remains high, biopsy from other sites (bone marrow, lymph nodes or adrenal gland lesion) or from a simultaneously existing cerebral lesion is suggested, to exclude or prove diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, IVL, or a rare T-cell lymphoma.