Clinical Neuroscience

[Foreign Language Summaries]

MAY 09, 1953

Clinical Neuroscience - 1953;6(02)

[A summary of the articles published in the issue in Russian and German]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[The mechanism of formation of electrical activity in nerve tissue and its significance for cognition of function]

LISSÁK Kálmán

[The discovery and practical application of the doctrine of modern electricity is a major milestone in the cultural history of mankind. Of general interest and particular importance in the history of electricity are bioelectric currents, because the discovery of "animal electricity" was the basis of the doctrine of modern electricity. Galvani's work, De viribus electricitatis in motu muscularis commentarius, published in 1791, not only marks the beginning of the science of electrophysiology, but the ensuing debate led Volta to discover the existence of current electricity, Galvanic current, and the morphology of the electric organs of the electric ray, already known in antiquity, helped him to formulate the Volta column. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Prevention and treatment of amentiformis images resulting from stacked electroshock treatment]

ZSOMBÓK György

[During cumulative electroconvulsive therapy, amentiform restlessness may occur before and after the stupor phase; in individuals with signs of mild hyperthyroidism, with usually very marked sympathicotonic signs. The clinical observations outlined above suggest that the reduction in the body's mobilisable fluid, partly due to the increase in sympathicotonia and prolonged, intense capillary permeability following ES treatment, is a significant factor in its induction. The immediate resolution of confusion by i.v. administration of ergotamine tartrate or its hydrated derivative (DHE45), and the sustained sedation by combined injections of Sevenal+ergotamine tartrate have been shown to be effective. Prophylactic, regularly monitored tea drinking during treatment can reduce complications and, with immediate combined sedation in the presence of a mentiform condition, corrigorate fluid dysfunction and completely eliminate mortality. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Pregnancy vomiting in the light of Pavlovian reflexology]

KLIMES Károly, TARJÁN György

[Vomiting during pregnancy has long been a well-known, almost physiologically accepted complication of pregnancy. The old textbooks divided the phenomenon of increased vomiting in pregnancy (hyperemesis gravidarum) into toxic, reflex and psychogenic causes. In addition to the minor error of scientific arbitrariness, there was a much greater therapeutic error, in that the doctor's therapeutic activity, which was almost entirely subjective, oscillated between excessive prescriptions and the trivialisation of vomiting. On many occasions, however, what started out as harmless vomiting in pregnancy became more and more severe, the patient became dehydrated as a result of the increasing vomiting and the picture became increasingly toxic. It is also important to note that severe toxic vomiting was an indication for abortion, and therefore the precise assessment of the vomiting condition was not only a medical but also a socio-political and even moral task.]

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Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]

ZAKARIÁS Lilla, RÓZSA Sándor, LUKÁCS Ágnes

[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Focus on Lege Artis Medicinae (LAM)]

VASAS Lívia, GEGES József

[Three decades ago, LAM was launched with the goal of providing scientific information about medicine and its frontiers. From the very beginning, LAM has also concerned a special subject area while connecting medicine with the world of art. In the palette of medical articles, it remained a special feature to this day. The analysis of the history of LAM to date was performed using internationally accepted publication guidelines and scientific databases as a pledge of objectivity. We examined the practice of LAM if it meets the main criteria, the professional expectations of our days, when publishing contents of the traditional printed edition and its electronic version. We explored the visibility of articles in the largest bibliographic and scientific metric databases, and reviewed the LAM's place among the Hun­ga­rian professional journals. Our results show that in recent years LAM has gained international reputation des­pite publishing in Hungarian spoken by a few people. This is due to articles with foreign co-authors as well as references to LAM in articles written exclusively by foreign researchers. The journal is of course full readable in the Hungarian bibliographic databases, and its popularity is among the leading ones. The great virtue of the journal is the wide spectrum of the authors' affiliation, with which they cover almost completely the Hungarian health care institutional sys­tem. The special feature of its columns is enhanced by the publication of writings on art, which may increase Hungarian and foreign interest like that of medical articles.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KÁLMÁN Bernadette, KRABÓTH Zoltán

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Nursing Difficulties during the Treatment of Patients from different Cultures]

ČERVENÝ Martin, KILÍKOVÁ Mária

[Introduction: Inspecting the difficulties of Hungarian nurses during the treatment of patients from different cultures. Materials and methods: Anonymous online questionnaire for the subjective examination of nursing difficulties. Results: The research model consists of 122 responder. Specific questions were answered by applicable 111 responders only. It was discovered that communication is a significant difficulty for 56.76% of the respondents (63 people). Furthermore the patients from different cultures show significant distrust towards the nursing staff. Conclusion: The numbers of lessons in foreign languages need to be increased for Hungarian nurses, researches and presentations are needed in the area of multicultural patient care, communicational instructions and further trainings are required for nurses working in practice.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[MR imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children. A review (in English language)]

PATAY Zoltán

[Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are relatively rare in children, but their relevance to public health is considerable due to frequent and significant long term morbidity and even mortality. As in adults, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) and their variants are the most common entities in this group of pathologies in the pediatric patient population. Recent efforts have focused on establishing standardized diagnostic criteria schemes to facilitate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of these diseases, however especially with multiple sclerosis those have not been fully validated yet for disease occurring in children. In recent decades the role of MRI has been constantly increasing in the diagnostic work-up of suspected inflammatory diseases of the CNS as well as in the follow-up of patients with confirmed disease. Currently, MRI is the first-line diagnostic imaging modality in ADEM and MS and is fully integrated in the most widely used diagnostic criteria schemes, but it has a key role in clinical therapeutic research trials as well. This paper provides an update on the current concepts and strategies of MRI in inflammatory diseases of the CNS, as well as a review of the imaging semiology of the various disease entities and variants with emphasis on clinical and imaging particularities relevant to the pediatric patient population.]