Clinical Neuroscience

[Factors affecting the offsetting ability psychopathic reactions ]

MAGYAR István1

NOVEMBER 01, 1968

Clinical Neuroscience - 1968;21(11)

[To summarise what has been said, I would like to present my views on psychopathy below. 1. The abnormal personality structure is not a disease and thus does not in itself affect the integrity of the capacity to reason. 2. The abnormal personality structure may facilitate the commission of a particular act, but its assessment as a mitigating circumstance is a matter for the judge. It is rarely necessary to draw the attention of the mental health professional to this fact, and in particular in the case of recidivists, prison as a "forced treatment" should be acknowledged and approved. 3. The involvement of the capacity to reason comes to the fore in manifest psychopathic states, i.e. in cases of psychic decompensation reaching pathological levels, or when a psychotic reaction occurs at the base of a pathological personality structure. In these cases, the most crucial question is to determine the relationship between the pathological state that has developed and the sinful act; in Nyírő's definition, the disease is criminal or the conscious self. 4 I have not discussed the structural aspects of military justice and pathological personality, but I will merely mention that the issue here is complicated by special military problems, including the question of military fitness and the occurrence of special military crimes. More common is the disqualification or incapacity to report if the offender was or has become unfit for military service. The assessment of special military offences is different and the shaping influence of the military environment changes the assessment. These issues have been mentioned for the sake of completeness, as they would exhaust the scope of a paper, but they are also a specific problem affecting a narrower range of people. The title of my topic promised a description of psychopathic reactions affecting the ability to report and this is apparently not what I gave. However, I believe that without a negative assessment of the abnormal personality structure, which is still a controversial issue in both psychiatry and forensic psychiatry and which does not generally affect the integrity of sanity, the issue cannot be discussed. Practical experience has shown that in the vast majority of cases, the psychoanalytical assessment of pathological conditions arising from pathological personality structures is less of a problem than the correct interpretation of the pathological personality structure itself, psychopathy, and its impact on the integrity of the mental capacity. ]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Magyar Néphadsereg Egészségügyi Szolgálata

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Age-related lesions of the choroid plexus]

HORÁNYI Béla, SZENDRŐI Mária

[Authors studied 30 cases of age-related lesions of epithelial cells and stroma of the choroid plexus. In all cases, they found plexus sclerosis of variable intensity. In 21 cases, Biondi's lesions were detected in the epithelial cells of the plexus, detectable by silver impregnation. The morphological characteristics of these formations are discussed. In their material, they have compared the choroid plexus abnormalities with the occurrence of other age-related brain lesions, i.e. senile plaques and Alzheimer's fibrillum lesions. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Stereotactic treatment for Parkinson's disease ]

HULLAY József

[The author reports observations from 40 stereotaxic surgeries in 35 Parkinson's patients. He has developed a new stereotaxic method which, as far as possible, is maximally adapted to ventricular and structura variations and, accordingly, allows not only accurate targeting but also in vivo localization, documentation and interpretation of surgical events. Using his new method of laesio analysis, he detected compression of tremor- and tonus-responsive laesios at the boundaries of V.o. 1 p. and V. im. and V. o. a. in the thalamus, and at the boundaries of Z. i. and Ra. prl., I, in the subthalamus. At the target point corresponding to the site of subthalamic compression, he observed a persistent tremor arrest during EMG-traced electrode insertion, and a single small lesion (40 mm) at this site proved to have a very good effect on both tonus and tremor. Evaluating the surgical results according to the site of laesio placement, he found that combined laesio of the VL nucleus and subthalamus gave better results than pallidum laesio, but the best results were observed after subthalamus, Z. i., Ra. prl. laesio. Undesirable psychic side effects were most often observed with VL nucleus and subthalamus laesio combination. Positive development of the psychic picture and the least side effects were observed after subthalamic laesio. He considered the improvement of psychomotor function as an important factor in the somatomotor improvement or its preservation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Analgesic and spasmolytic effects of scutamil-C tablets in neurosurgical patients]

VIDOVSZKY Tamás

[Scutamil-C was tested in a total of 64 patients treated in neurosurgery wards and outpatient clinics. An average of 4X1 tablets was given and it was found to be effective in patients with conditions where painful muscle spasms are the main complaint and symptom, without causing adverse side effects. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The intrauterine feeding disorder late neuropsychiatric consequences]

LIPÁK János, BAZSÓ János, KLEININGER Ottó, ZSADÁNYI Ottó, SOÓS Árpád, MALÁN Mihály

[Anthropological, paediatric, ophthalmological, neuropsychiatric and psychological examinations were performed on 20 pairs of twins aged 10-17 years. In all twin pairs, the birth weight of one twin was at least 15% lower than that of the other twin, and in all cases below the median. All other influencing factors than birth weight were excluded. There is no doubt that there is a strong levelling off tendency in the low birth weight group, but the levelling off is not complete even at puberty. Significant differences are found in visuomotor perception, body weight and almost significant differences in locomotor development. There is a non-significant but consistent retardation in the low-weight group in all parameters of physical and mental development, and a similar disadvantage in neuropsychiatric aspects. We believe that intrauterine malnutrition should be recognised as an aetiological factor in the field of physical and mental subnormalities after the age of 10 years. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Data on carotid circulation disorders I. Thombosis of the internal carotid artery]

DÉNES Iván, KÉKES Ede, HORÁNYI Péter

[The authors analysed data from 29 patients with internal carotid artery thrombosis. They highlight the importance of prevention and early diagnosis of the disease. In addition to the common clinical signs, they recommend monitoring changes in blood pressure, palpation of the carotid artery, performing a carotid pulse curve, and looking for contralateral murmur. In their experience, novocaine infiltration of the carotid sinus area is always effective in the treatment and prevention of severe hypertension in the setting of the disease.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]

VASTAGH Ildikó, SZŐCS Ildikó, OBERFRANK Ferenc, AJTAY András, BERECZKI Dániel

[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Correlations Between Burnout and Socio-demographic and Workplace Related Factors Among Health-care Workers During The Covid-19 Pandemics]

NÉMETH Anikó, IRINYI Tamás

[The present study aimed to assess the level of burn-out among health-care workers in 2020 and its correlations with socio-demographic and workplace related factors. The cross-sectional study was conducted by the means of a self-constructed online survey in the beginning of 2021. The responses of 1965 people were analysed with the help of SPSS 23.0. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis probes were run (p<0.05). Severe burnout was present in 46.7% of the responders. Age, marital status, type of health-care provided and years spent in the health-care system didn’t show any correlation with burnout. Unsure vision, opinion about salary raise and uncertainty at the workplace influenced the level of burnout significantly (p<0.000). The mental health of health-care workers is in continuous decline, in which the COVID-19 pandemic might play a big role. People with worse mental health feel more uncertain regarding their future and job; this might make providing health-care more and more difficult.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Identifying osteoporosis in a primary care setting with quantitative ultrasound]

HIRDI Henriett Éva, SZOBOTA Lívia

[Osteoporosis is one of the most under-diagnosed and under-treated health conditions. In recent decades, several risk indices have been developed to identify women at risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) who require a BMD test. This study aimed to demonstrate that quantitative ultrasound bone density measurement can indeed be performed simply by nurses working in primary care, which can significantly facilitate early detection of osteopenic and osteoporotic conditions. Method: The medical records of all patients who had an ultrasound of the left heel using the quantitative heel ultrasound machine between March 2021 through December 2021 were reviewed retrospectively. The subjects were 20-64-year-old adults (N=1032). Calcaneal quantitative ultra­sound parameters were registered with Sonost-2000 bone densitometer. The body composition was measured using a multi-frequency segmental body composition analyzer. The measurement results were evaluated with SPSS 22.0 statistical program and descriptive statistics. The mean age of the population studied was 43.12±9.6 years; 29.7% were men and 70.3% were women. Of the women in our study, 2.4% were osteoporotic (T ≤ −2.5), and 49.86% were classified as osteopenic according to the WHO operational definition. Osteopenic values were measured in 32.35% of men. A total of 273 subjects (26.45%) in the study sample were in the 50-64 age group (223 women and 50 men). 4% of women over the age of 50 had osteoporosis and 63.7% had osteopenia. Rating of the OST score no one was placed in the high-risk group. Of the 9 women with osteoporosis, 8 were classified as low-risk and 1 as medium based on OST. Nurses in primary care are able to identify key risk factors for osteoporosis, examine the measurement with quantitative ultrasound, and identify individuals with the disease. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Non-pharmacological prevention and treatment for postoperative delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture - a systematic review]

VIDA Nóra, PAPP László

[Delirium is defined as a disturbance of consciousness and cognition that develops over a short period of time and fluctuates over time. During the last decade, the number of publications dealing with different aspects of delirium have been grown. The key points in most articles are pharmacological prevention and treatment, but because the rise of health care expenditures, all activities, which cost-effectively support the care process, is getting more and more important. The aim of the study: The aim of this research is to review the non-pharmacological prevention and treatment possibilities of delirium in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. Systematic review, using articles published between 1999 and 2019 in PubMed and Wiley Online Libraries. Non-pharmacologic treatments significantly reduced the incidence (p=0.003–0.045) and duration (p=0.009–0.03) of delirium. The interventions also contributed to decrease the number of episodes (p=0.03), and to make the symptoms lighter. Early mobilisation and adequate fluid and electrolyte intake are key factors in reducing the incidence of delirium. Measuring oxygen saturation and support, appropriate nutrition, effective pain treatment, minimizing drug-interactions, maintaining good sleep and managing sensory dysfunctions have an effect on incidence, duration and severity of delirium.]