Clinical Neuroscience


LÁZÁR György

MARCH 30, 2014

Clinical Neuroscience - 2014;67(03-04)

[This publication summarizes the scientific adventure with Professor Selye, and focuses on the specific effect of rare metal salts on reticuloendothelial functions. Rare earth metal ions markedly affect the functions of cells involved in inflammatory and immunological phenomena. The Kupffer cell blockade induced by GdCl3 is a generally accepted method for investigation of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of Kupffer cells. Potential beneficial effects of macrophage blockade have been demonstrated in different shock states, liver injury and obstructive jaundice.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience


SOMOGYI Árpád, SZABÓ Sándor, ROGER Guillemin, VOLKER Jahnke, MILAGROS Salas-Prato, YVETTE Taché, LÁZÁR György, GYIRES Klára, VÉCSEI László, HORVÁTH Zoltán, TUKA Bernadett, DUNAI Magdolna, ET al.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Validation of the Hungarian MDS-UPDRS: Why do we need a new Parkinson scale?]

HORVÁTH Krisztina, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, ÁCS Péter, BOSNYÁK Edit, DELI Gabriella, PÁL Endre, KÉSMÁRKI Ildikó, HORVÁTH A. Réka, TAKÁCS Katalin, KOMOLY Sámuel, BOKOR Magdolna, RIGÓ Eszter, LAJTOS Júlia, KLIVÉNYI Péter, DIBÓ György, VÉCSEI László, TAKÁTS Annamária, TÓTH Adrián, IMRE Piroska, NAGY Ferenc, HERCEG Mihály, HIDASI Eszter, KOVÁCS Norbert

[Background - The Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) has been published in 2008 as the successor of the original UPDRS. The MDS-UPDRS organizing team developed guidelines for the development of official non- English translations consisting of four steps: translation/back-translation, cognitive pretesting, large field testing, and clinimetric analysis. The aim of this paper was to introduce the new MDS-UPDRS and its validation process into Hungarian. Methods - Two independent groups of neurologists translated the text of the MDS-UPDRS into Hungarian and subsequently back-translated into English. After the review of the back-translated English version by the MDS-UPDRS translation administration team, cognitive pretesting was conducted with ten patients. Based on the results of the initial cognitive pretesting, another round was conducted. For the large field testing phase, the Hungarian official working draft version of MDS-UPDRS was tested with 357 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) determined whether the factor structure for the English-language MDS-UPDRS could be confirmed in data collected using the Hungarian Official Draft Version. To become an official translation, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had to be ≥0.90 compared to the English-language version. Results - For all four parts of the Hungarian MDS-UPDRS, the CFI was ≥0.94. Conclusion - The overall factor structure of the Hungarian version was consistent with that of the English version based on the high CFIs for all the four parts of the MDSUPDRS in the CFA; therefore, this version was designated as the ‘OFFICIAL HUNGARIAN VERSION OF THE MDSUPDRS.’]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Association of temporal lobe inflammatory leukoencephalopathy with two B cell malignancies]

GARZULY Ferenc, HAHN Katalin, IVÁNYI János László, KERESKAI László, GÁBOR Valéria, KOVÁCS G. Gábor, BUDKA Herbert, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

[Identification of etiological connections among virtually distinct diseases in a patient may be sometimes challenging. We report a unique case with two B cell malignancies and an inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. Three days prior to admission, the elderly male patient developed fatigue, headaches, recurrent vomiting, memory disturbances, depression and somnolence. Clinical, laboratory and imaging evaluations as well as post mortem histological studies were performed. Simultaneous presence of primary central nervous system B cell lymphoma, temporal lobe inflammatory leukoencephalopathy and multiple (smoldering) myeloma, was revealed by the detailed work up in the treatmentnaïve patient. Based on recent data from genomic studies, we propose that a sequential evolution of molecular pathology lead to the co-occurrence of multiple myeloma and primary central nervous system B cell lymphoma in this patient, and interpret the development of the temporal lobe leukoencephalopathy as a likely paraneoplastic complication of smoldering myeloma.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Dilemma of further therapeutic step in RRMS in case of ineffectivity of first line treatment: fingolimod or natalizumab?]


Clinical Neuroscience

[Meeting of the Hungarian Epilepsy League]


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Hungarian Radiology

[Interventional radiology of multiple biliary stenoses]


[INTRODUCTION - In palliative treatment of malignant bile duct obstruction the endoscopic and the percutaneous methods are the possible options. In multiple lesions the percutaneous method must be preferable. Decrease of the bilirubin level to normal gives an opportunity for further treatment of the oncology patients. CASE REPORT - Authors report three patients’ case history, when following an unsuccessful endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous cholangiography revealed multiple biliary stenoses. In all cases successful stent implantations were performed (three stents in one patient, two stents in two patients). The bilirubin levels decreased rapidly and the quality of life improved in all cases. Following the stent implantation selective cytostatic treatment (one patient) and systemic cytostatic treatment (one patient) were performed. The mean survival time was 300 days. CONCLUSION - In the case of multiple biliary stenoses the percutaneous stent implantation is an acceptable palliative method, which permit the possibilities of further interventional radiological or oncological treatments.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Second game, 37th move and Fourth game 78th move]

VOKÓ Zoltán

[What has Go to do with making clinical decisions? One of the greatest intellectual challenges of bedside medicine is making decisions under uncertainty. Besides the psychological traps of traditionally intuitive and heuristic medical decision making, lack of information, scarce resources and characteristics of doctor-patient relationship contribute equally to this uncertainty. Formal, mathematical model based analysis of decisions used widely in developing clinical guidelines and in health technology assessment provides a good tool in theoretical terms to avoid pitfalls of intuitive decision making. Nevertheless it can be hardly used in individual situations and most physicians dislike it as well. This method, however, has its own limitations, especially while tailoring individual decisions, under inclusion of potential lack of input data used for calculations, or its large imprecision, and the low capability of the current mathematical models to represent the full complexity and variability of processes in complex systems. Nevertheless, clinical decision support systems can be helpful in the individual decision making of physicians if they are well integrated in the health information systems, and do not break down the physicians’ autonomy of making decisions. Classical decision support systems are knowledge based and rely on system of rules and problem specific algorithms. They are utilized widely from health administration to image processing. The current information revolution created the so-called artificial intelligence by machine learning methods, i.e. machines can learn indeed. This new generation of artificial intelligence is not based on particular system of rules but on neuronal networks teaching themselves by huge databases and general learning algorithms. This type of artificial intelligence outperforms humans already in certain fields like chess, Go, or aerial combat. Its development is full of challenges and threats, while it presents a technological breakthrough, which cannot be stopped and will transform our world. Its development and application has already started also in the healthcare. Health professionals must participate in this development to steer it into the right direction. Lee Sedol, 18-times Go world champion retired three years after his historical defeat from AlphaGo artificial intelligence, be­cause “Even if I become the No. 1, there is an entity that cannot be defeated”. It is our great luck that we do not need to compete or defeat it, we must ensure instead that it would be safe and trustworthy, and in collaboration with humans this entity would make healthcare more effective and efficient. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Life threatening rare lymphomas presenting as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis: a diagnostic challenge

TOLVAJ Balázs, HAHN Katalin, NAGY Zsuzsanna, VADVÁRI Árpád, CSOMOR Judit, GELPI Ellen, ILLÉS Zsolt, GARZULY Ferenc

Background and aims – Description of two cases of rare intravascular large B-cell lymphoma and secondary T-cell lymphoma diagnosed postmortem, that manifested clinically as longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). We discuss causes of diagnostic difficulties, deceptive radiological and histological investigations, and outline diagnostic procedures based on our and previously reported cases. Case reports – Our first case, a 48-year-old female was admitted to the neurological department due to paraparesis. MRI suggested LETM, but the treatments were ineffective. She died after four weeks because of pneumonia and untreatable polyserositis. Pathological examination revealed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Our second case, a 61-year-old man presented with headache and paraparesis. MRI showed small bitemporal lesions and lesions suggesting LETM. Diagnostic investigations were unsuccessful, including tests for possible lymphoma (CSF flow cytometry and muscle biopsy for suspected IVL). Chest CT showed focal inflammation in a small area of the lung, and adrenal adenoma. Brain biopsy sample from the affected temporal area suggested T-cell mediated lymphocytic (paraneoplastic or viral) meningoencephalitis and excluded diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The symptoms worsened, and the patient died in the sixth week of disease. The pathological examination of the presumed adenoma in the adrenal gland, the pancreatic tail and the lung lesions revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, as did the brain and spinal cord lesions. Even at histological examination, the T-cell lymphoma had the misleading appearance of inflammatory condition as did the MRI. Conclusion – Lymphoma can manifest as LETM. In cases of etiologically unclear atypical LETM in patients older than 40 years, a random skin biopsy (with subcutaneous adipose tissue) from the thigh and from the abdomen is strongly recommended as soon as possible. This may detect IVL and provide the possibility of prompt chemotherapy. In case of suspicion of lymphoma, parallel examination of the CSF by flow cytometry is also recommended. If skin biopsy is negative but lymphoma suspicion remains high, biopsy from other sites (bone marrow, lymph nodes or adrenal gland lesion) or from a simultaneously existing cerebral lesion is suggested, to exclude or prove diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, IVL, or a rare T-cell lymphoma.