Clinical Neuroscience

[Effects of maternal epilepsy and antiepileptic therapy in women during pregnancy]

VANYA Melinda, ÁRVA-NAGY Nóra, SZILI Károly, SZOK Délia, BÁRTFAI György

MARCH 25, 2015

Clinical Neuroscience - 2015;68(03-04)

[Objective - The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of epilepsy and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment on pregnancy and the perinatal outcome, retrospectively. Methods - We examined the obstetric and fetal outcomes among women with epilepsy (WWE), who were followed-up at the Department of Neurology, and who delivered at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (n=91) between 31th December 2000 and 31th March 2014. Statistical comparisons of different obstetric and fetal parameters on a sample of 91 WWE and 182 non-WWE were assessed by the chi-square-test, the independent sample t-test. Results - The rate of major congenital malformations (MCMS) among the newborns of all AEDs exposed mothers was 7.69%. There were three peaks of seizures: during the third trimester, during delivery and in the puerperium. The prevalence of miscarriages, post-term birth and the rate of caesarean section were significantly higher among the WWE than among the non-WWE (p=0.001; p<0.001; p=0.02). Parameters of neonates (birth weight, birth length, head-, and chest circumference) were significantly different between the WWE group and the non-WWE group (p=0.003, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001) Conclusions - In contrast with recent publications, there were significant differences in the parameters of neonates between the two groups. Our results are in accordance with those of previous studies from the aspect of AED-related MCM, the elevated risk of miscarriages and pre-existing hypertension. ]

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BENCSIK Krisztina, RÓZSA Csilla, VÉCSEI László

[Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the autoimmune, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). There are nine drugs available in Hungary reimbursed by the National Health Insurance Fund of Hungary (OEP) to reduce the activity of the disease, from which seven can be used as first line therapies. We have approximately 20 years of experience with the interferon b-1a/1b and glatiramer-acetate products. Though in case of approximately 30% of the patients using one of the first line drugs, the disease remains active, that we call break-through disease. The reasons for break-through disease could be the insufficient adherence and compliance, the appearance of neutralizing antibodies or the high activity of the disease. One of the oral immunomodulating drugs for MS, teriflunomide, was registered in Europe in 2013. Because of the anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effect of teriflunomide, it can be used for the reduction of the disease activity in the relapsing-remitting course of MS. The effect of teriflunomide was proved in one Phase II. and four Phase III. (TEMSO, TOWER, TENERE, TOPIC) studies. Teriflunomide 14 mg once daily was able to demonstrate in two consecutive placebo-controlled phase 3 clinical trials that significantly reduces the relapse rate (31.5% and 36.3%) and in both studies significantly reduces the sustained disability progression (29.8% and 31.5%) moreover delays the appearance of the clinically definitive MS in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). According to the TENERE study there were no significant differences observed between teriflunomide 14 mg and IFNb-1a s.c. in time to failure and annualized relapse rate but the treatment satisfaction domains of global satisfaction, side-effects and convenience were significantly improved with teriflunomide compared with s.c. IFNb-1a. ]

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[Proconvulsive effect of antiepileptic drugs]

KELEMEN Anna

[Antiepileptic drugs can provoke and worsen seizures, what is called paradoxical effect. Paradoxical seizure worsening can occur as a nonspecific manifestation of drug intoxication in number of antiepileptic drugs. The other type is a specific type, when antiepileptic drugs with pure GABAergic and sodium channel blocker mechanism of action provoke myoclonic, absence and atonic seizures in specific epilepsy syndromes, mainly in idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Antiepileptic drug-induced exacerbation of seizures is a common, often unrecognized clinical problem, which can be avoided by a careful syndromic diagnosis and by using broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs.]

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[Drug therapy of neuropathic pain in mirror of latest reccommandations]

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[Neuropathic pain is considered as a special type of different pain conditions. It’s pathophysiological basis and treatment is completely different from the nociceptive pain. The first comprehensive therapeutic guidelines published approximately a decade ago recommended tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and opioids. The recent summary presents and evaluates national and international guidelines issued in the last five years. The most frequently suggested drugs by all guidelines are amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin and pregabalin. Pregabalin is the only drug that is recommended first line in all guidelines referred. Opioids are in the second or third line. There seems to be no major development in the pharmacological treatment of the neuropathic pain compared to the earlier recommendations. High quality studies of head to head comparisons and effectiveness of combination therapy are still lacking.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Do previous offences predict violent acts in psychiatric patients? A retrospective study in Hungary]

BARAN Brigitta, SZABÓ Ádám Ferenc, KARA Borbála, KOVÁCS Magdolna, UZONYI Adél, ANTAL Albert, UNGVARI S Gabor, GAZDAG Gábor

[Aim - To investigate the presence of offences in the previous past history of perpetrators of violent acts who have undergone forced medical treatment. Methods - The documentation of all patients released over a 10-year period from the National Institute of Forensic Psychiatry (IMEI) was reviewed. A comparison was drawn between patients who were convicted of any type of offense before the violent act (patients with previous offences-PPO) and those who were not (patients with no previous offences-PNO). Results - Eighty-six (29%) and 208 (71%) patients formed the PPO and PNO groups, respectively. Prior contact with psychiatric services was significantly higher in the PPO group (p=0.038) and this group was also more likely to offend under the influence of a psychoactive substance (p<0.001). Exceptional brutality and other qualifying factors were more frequent in the PNO group (p=0.019). Conclusion - As IMEI is the only forensic institution in Hungary, the picture presented here reflects the situation in the entire country. A recidivism rate of 29% is within the internationally published range. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

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