Clinical Neuroscience

Die spatio-temporale Analyse der epileptischen Anfalls-Tatigkeit


FEBRUARY 01, 1969

Clinical Neuroscience - 1969;22(02)

Es mag überflüssig erscheinen, ist es aber nicht, auf den Unterschied zwischen dem „EEG“, das mit den üblichen Methoden der Elektroenzephalographie gewonnen wird, und der „Bioelektrischen Hirntätigkeit“ hinzuweisen. Beide Begriffe sind grundsätzlich verschieden, werden aber häufig im Sprach gebrauch und auch im Denken vermischt und nicht klar voneinander abgegrenzt. Ein besseres Verstehen der elektrischen Eigenschaften des Zentralnerven systems ist aber nur möglich, wenn diese beiden Begriffe klar unterschieden werden. Ihre Definition zeigt erst die Grenzen der heutigen Methodik, Hirnstrom kurven aufzunehmen und zu beurteilen, und kann den Weg zü einer künftigen Elektroenzephalographie weisen, die der Erfassung der bioelektrischen Hirntätigkeit durch Messung von mehr Parametern als bisher näher kommt als es heute der Fall ist.



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Group intelligence test for screening of people with intellectual disabilities]


[Our group-administered, objective, validated paper-certificate intelligence test is designed to screen people with intellectual disabilities. We present two of our parallel-half tests and the performance of a representative group of 18-year-old males with an educational level above grade IV in primary school, measured by this method.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Intellectual performance of older people - comparative study - data ]


[The author used a test designed to assess the intellectual functioning of young people to compare the thinking of older people. The slowing down of the pace found in the K.s. was associated with a poor quality of performance. Both in terms of slowing and quality, there was a significant difference between the rural and the urban elderly, to the detriment of the former. Although more advanced age tends to lead to a lower degree of uniformity in the quality of performance, the studies show that social factors play a more important role, as they are the primary determinants of the complex chain of conditions for intellectual differentiation in old age, with the life situation in youth and maturity (schooling, occupation, education, etc.) playing a key role. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Data on the issue of carotid circulatory dysfunction]


[The authors reviewed data from 45 cases of carotid insufficiency without complete occlusion. They conclude that, in addition to anamnestic data and neurological symptoms, the auditory murmur over the carotid arteries and bilateral carotid pulse curve examination are crucial in the diagnosis of carotid stenosis. The classification introduced by the authors is based on a dynamic view of the pathology and provides guidance in the selection of appropriate therapeutic options. ]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Effective therapy in highly active pediatric multiple sclerosis ]

MERÔ Gabriella, MÓSER Judit, LIPTAI Zoltán, DIÓSZEGHY Péter, BESSENYEI Mónika, CSÉPÁNY Tünde

[Multiple sclerosis (MS) is typically a disease of young adults. Childhood MS can be defined in patients under 18 years of age, although some authors set the limit un­der the age of 16 formerly known as “early-onset multiple sclerosis” or “juvenile multiple sclerosis”, seen in 3-5% of all MS patients. Nowadays, owing to ever-evolving, better diagnostic tools and well-traced, strictly defined diagnostic criteria, childhood MS is showing an increasing incidence worldwide (0.05-2.85/100 000). MS is characterized by recurrent episodes of the central nervous system with demyelination separated in space and time. In childhood almost exclusively the relapsing-remitting (RR) type of MS occurs. Based on experience in adults, the goal in the pediatric population is also the early diagnosis, to initiate adequate DMT as soon as possible and to achieve symptom relief and good quality of life. Based on efficacy and safety studies in the adult population, inter­feron β-1a and glatiramer acetate were first approved by the FDA and EMA for the treatment of childhood MS also. The increased relapse rate and rapid progression of childhood MS and unfavorable therapeutic response to nearly 45% of the first DMT necessitated the testing of more effective and second-line drugs in the population under 18 years of age (PARADIGMS, CONNECT). Although natalizumab was reported to be effective and well-tolerated in highly active RRMS in childhood, evidence based studies were not yet available when our patients’ treatment started. In this article, we report on the successful treatment of three active RRMS patients with individually authorized off-label use of natalizumab.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Blood pressure variability and its clinical importance]


[The 24-hour and longer-term (weeks, months, years) as well as seasonal, regional variations and fluctuations of blood pressure have been known for long time in both normotensive and hypertensive patients. It is also well known and established that blood pressure variability is greater in patients with more severe hypertension and in the elderly population. In the last decade and actually, the variability of blood pressure has come into new light by meticulous analysis of numerous causal factors and consequences influencing its fluctuation. The real diagnostic and prognostic value of blood pressure variability and its role in the assessment of successful antihypertensive treatment have also been favoured. In our review, we summarise the physiological and pathophysiological principles of blood pressure variability, including also the significant importance of allostasis in the new approach. We overview the methods of measuring the blood pressure variability and its real importance related to the results obtained. We analyse the importance of non-adaptive levels of blood pressure variability in asymptomatic cases and apparent conditions, further in diagnostic projections and monitoring the treatment. Based on our own experience, we also present the future options of exploring the fluctuating blood pressure.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Screening and care of patients with lower extremity arterial disease in Hungary]


[Lower extremity arterial disease, in addition to the worsening life quality due to the concerning complaints and the rist of amputation, entails high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of this disease in the Hungarian po­pulation is close to 600 000 people, based on an extrapolation of the international epi­demiological data. In the recent years two target studies started (i) to analyse the performance of screening for lower extremity arterial disease in a representative hypertensive population (ÉRV Program), and (ii) to analyse the data of patients in the whole Hungarian health insurance population with lower ext­remity amputation or revascularization (HUNVASCDATA study). The present review summarizes the outcomes of these two studies. Data analysis on national sample bears high importance, since any improvement in vascular care in Hungary rests entirely on this information. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Cerebrovascular diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease]

KISS István, NAGY Judit

[The reason of the unfavourable life expectancy of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not only the development of end-stage renal failure but the frequent appearance of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Chronic kidney damage itself is a cardiovascular risk state and the occurrence of CVD/associated diseases is significantly higher in chronic kidney failure. Beside risk stratification and valid treatment of CVD (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease e.g.) we and the international nephrological community have left the cerebrovascular diseases of CKD patients out of consideration. However, up to 50% of patients suffering a stroke will die immediately, only 10% of stroke survivors can continue his/her profession, but the others will be permanently disabled. High blood pressure is a strong predictor of stroke and of other CVD in most of the patients. In stroke risk reduction it is particularly important to reach the target blood pressure values. The main object of the “Live under 140/90 mmHg” programme of the Hungarian Society of Hypertension is to familiarize with target blood pressure itself and how to reach target blood pressure. In 2010, prevention, early diagnosis and management of stroke are the most important challenges of this programme (The Brain Control Programme). We think it is advisable to prepare and publish a clinical practice guideline in collaboration with stroke societies which is similar to the guidelines of international societies and of the Hungarian Society of Stroke but specific for CKD patients. This guideline would help to give a uniform, up-to-date treatment for the cerebrovascular diseases of CKD patients.]