Clinical Neuroscience

[Determining the term of schizencephaly]

KENÉZ József, LEEL-ŐSSY Lóránt

MAY 20, 2007

Clinical Neuroscience - 2007;60(05-06)

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Clinical Neuroscience

[100 years of riddle… X. Jubilee Alzheimer’s disease congress on the 100th anniversary of disease description]

Clinical Neuroscience

[TREATMENT OF SPASTIC UPPER LIMB WITH BOTULINUS TOXIN]

DÉNES Zoltán, FEHÉR Miklós, VÁRKONYI Andrea

[Objective - Examination of the effect of local botulinus toxin treatment on spastic upper limb, on patients with different brain injury. Patients and method - Prospective study in Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit of the National Institute for Medical Rehabilitation in the year 2003 and 2004. Thirteen patients (eight with stroke and five with traumatic brain injury) were treated locally on the spastic upper limb with 100 units botulinus A toxin. Results - Spasticity decreased one or two level on Modified Ashworth Scale, and in nine cases the good result were observed still at the end of 3rd month. No local or other complication was detected. Conclusions - Local treatment with botulinus toxin is an effective and safe method to decrease spasticity on upper limb in patients with different brain injury.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[NOVEL CELL-BIOLOGICAL IDEAS DEDUCIBLE FROM MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON “DARK” NEURONS REVISITED]

GALLYAS Ferenc

[The origin, nature and fate of ”dark“ (dramatically shrunken and hyperbasophilic) neurons are century-old problems in both human and experimental neuropathology. Until a few years ago, hardly any cell-biological conclusion had been drawn from their histological investigation. On the basis of light and electron microscopic findings in animal experiments performed during the past few years, my research team has put forward novel ideas concerning 1. the nature of ”dark“ neurons (malfunction of an energystoring gel-structure that is ubiquitously present in all intracellular spaces between the ultrastructural elements), 2. the mechanism of their formation (non-programmed initiation of a whole-cell phase-transition in this gel-structure), 3. their capability of recovery (programmed for some physiological purpose), 4. their death mode (neither necrotic nor apoptotic), and 5. their relationship with the apoptotic cell death (the gel structure in question is programmed for the morphological execution of ontogenetic apoptosis). Based on morphological observations, this paper revisits these ideas in order to bring them to the attention of researchers who are in a position to investigate their validity by means of experimental paradigms other than those used here.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[LATE CONTRALATERAL EPILEPTOGENESIS AFTER INCOMPLETE SURGERY IN TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY FOLLOWED ACROSS 18 YEARS]

HALÁSZ Péter, JANSZKY József, KELEMEN Anna, BARSI Péter, RÁSONYI György

[Objectives - To present evidence of changes in seizure semiology suggesting late contralateral epileptogenesis after incomplete surgery in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods - The presently 36 year old female patient was followed across 18 years by clinical observation and EEG, and video-EEG monitored before and 18 years after surgery. Results - The patient had complex partial seizures defined by video-EEG which started from the right temporal lobe with an ictal spread to the contralateral (left) temporal lobe. After right amygdalo-hippocampectomy she did not become seizure free. Years after surgery a new type of seizure emerged. Video-EEG monitoring 18 yrs after surgery revealed two seizure types. One started in the right temporal region clinically resembling to the earlier seizures. The new seizure type showed left sided electroclinical pattern. The postoperative MRI detected bilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Side specific memory tasks revealed bilateral hippocampal dysfunctions with subdominant (right) side predominance. Conclusions - The well documented evolution from unilateral to bilateral seizures suggests late contralateral epileptogenesis in which the persisting seizure spread from the primary epileptogenic side and/or the earlier silent contralateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) may play role. This case show that progressive changes with bilateral involvement may occur during the course of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

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[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]

VASTAGH Ildikó, SZŐCS Ildikó, OBERFRANK Ferenc, AJTAY András, BERECZKI Dániel

[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Family planning in multiple sclerosis: conception, pregnancy, breastfeeding]

RÓZSA Csilla

[Family planning is an exceptionally important question in multiple sclerosis, as women of childbearing age are the ones most often affected. Although it is proven that pregnancy does not worsen the long-term prognosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, many patients are still doubtful about having children. This question is further complicated by the fact that patients – and often even doctors – are not sufficiently informed about how the ever-increasing number of available disease-modifying treatments affect pregnancies. Breastfeeding is an even less clear topic. Patients usually look to their neurologists first for answers concerning these matters. It falls to the neurologist to rationally evaluate the risks and benefits of contraception, pregnancy, assisted reproduction, childbirth, breastfeeding and disease modifying treatments, to inform patients about these, and then together come to a decision about the best possible therapeutic approach, taking the patients’ individual family plans into consideration. Here we present a review of relevant literature adhering to international guidelines on the topics of conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding, with a special focus on the applicability of approved disease modifying treatments during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The goal of this article is to provide clinicians involved in the care of MS patients with up-to-date information that they can utilize in their day-to-day clinical practice. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[MR imaging of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children. A review (in English language)]

PATAY Zoltán

[Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are relatively rare in children, but their relevance to public health is considerable due to frequent and significant long term morbidity and even mortality. As in adults, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) and their variants are the most common entities in this group of pathologies in the pediatric patient population. Recent efforts have focused on establishing standardized diagnostic criteria schemes to facilitate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of these diseases, however especially with multiple sclerosis those have not been fully validated yet for disease occurring in children. In recent decades the role of MRI has been constantly increasing in the diagnostic work-up of suspected inflammatory diseases of the CNS as well as in the follow-up of patients with confirmed disease. Currently, MRI is the first-line diagnostic imaging modality in ADEM and MS and is fully integrated in the most widely used diagnostic criteria schemes, but it has a key role in clinical therapeutic research trials as well. This paper provides an update on the current concepts and strategies of MRI in inflammatory diseases of the CNS, as well as a review of the imaging semiology of the various disease entities and variants with emphasis on clinical and imaging particularities relevant to the pediatric patient population.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Zonisamide: one of the first-line antiepileptic drugs in focal epilepsy ]

JANSZKY József, HORVÁTH Réka, KOMOLY Sámuel

[Chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs without history of unprovoked epileptic seizures are not recommended for epilepsy prophylaxis. Conversely, if the patient suffered the first unprovoked seizure, then the presence of epileptiform discharges on the EEG, focal neurological signs, and the presence of epileptogenic lesion on the MRI are risk factors for a second seizure (such as for the development of epilepsy). Without these risk factors, the chance of a second seizure is about 25-30%, while the presence of these risk factors (for example signs of previous stroke, neurotrauma, or encephalitis on the MRI) can predict >70% seizure recurrence. Thus the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) re-defined the term ’epilepsy’ which can be diagnosed even after the first seizure, if the risk of seizure recurrence is high. According to this definition, we can start antiepileptic drug therapy after a single unprovoked seizure. There are four antiepileptic drugs which has the highest evidence (level „A”) as first-line initial monotherapy for treating newly diagnosed epilepsy. These are: carbamazepine, phenytoin, levetiracetam, and zonisamide (ZNS). The present review focuses on the ZNS. Beacuse ZNS can be administrated once a day, it is an optimal drug for maintaining patient’s compliance and for those patients who have a high risk for developing a non-compliance (for example teenagers and young adults). Due to the low interaction potential, ZNS treatment is safe and effective in treating epilepsy of elderly people. ZNS is an ideal drug in epilepsy accompanied by obesity, because ZNS has a weight loss effect, especially in obese patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]

RAJNA Péter

[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]