Clinical Neuroscience

[CURRENT ISSUES IN NEUROUROLOGY]

BANYÓ Tamás

MARCH 30, 2006

Clinical Neuroscience - 2006;59(03-04)

[The author gives an overview on the pathophysiology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and lists the most common bladder dysfunctions observed in various diseases of the nervous system. The cited classifications, principles, and categories follow the current guidelines of WHO and the International Continence Society. The author and his co-workers have been involved in the rehabilitational treatment of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction for more than a decade. The review paper is supplemented with illustrations taken from the author's own cases.]

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[Drug problems, psychopathology in youth, sociocultural background factors]

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[THE USE OF INTRAVENOUS IMMUNGLOBULIN IN THE TREATMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES]

MOLNÁR Mária Judit

[Intravenous immunglobulin given in autoimmune neuromuscular disorders modulates the immune system by complex actions, including, 1. the modification of the expression and function of Fc receptors, 2. interference with the activation of the complement and the cytokine network, 3. neutralisation of antiidiotypic antibodies, 4. effects on the activation, differentiation and effector functions of the T and B cells. Controlled trials have shown that intravenous immunglobulin is effective as first-line therapy in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and multifocal motor neuropathy. In case of steroid resistance or coexisting diabetes mellitus, intravenous immunglobulin can be the first line therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy as well. As an alternative therapy it can be a second-line choice in dermatomyositis, myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, and stiff person syndrome. While it has a remarkably good safety record for long term administration the following side effects have been observed: headache, skin rash, thromboembolic events and renal tubular necrosis. In some disorders, the appropriate dose and frequency of infusions that maintain a satisfactory therapeutic response is well defined on the basis of data of evidencebased medicine, whereas in others it still remains to be defined. For the analysis of pharmacoeconomical aspects and the mechanism(s) of response differences in the same disease categories, further studies are necessary.]

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[ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EXPRESSIONS OF THE FOETAL FACE MAY REFLECT FOETAL MOOD - MIMICRY IS PART OF FOETAL ETHOLOGY]

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[The author studied foetal faces and changes in features in the coronal plane during routine prenatal ultrasound scans. Based on known behaviour of children and adults, deductions can be made about foetal mood alterations. During the four years of the study the author noted five main facial expression changes that might be reflections of foetal mood. Foetal expressions and fine lineaments may indicate adequate maturity of the central nervous system as well as satisfactory oxygen supply. Ethologically, facial mimicry is an inherited behavioural pattern.]

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