Clinical Neuroscience


JANUARY 30, 2014

Clinical Neuroscience - 2014;67(01-02)



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Clinical studies with levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel]


[The motor complications in advanced Parkinson’s disease may interfere with the quality of life. To overcome this disability, a jejunal levodopa pump was developed. In this review we have summarized the published clinical data with this method.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the implicit learning processes]

CSÁBI Eszter, NÉMETH Dezsõ

[The role of sleep in different memory processes is debated. Probably it plays an active role in the memory consolidation or possibly it prevents forgetting by protecting against interference or it makes the memory performance more efficient by facilitating the forgetting. The beneficial effect of sleep in explicit memory is well demonstrated, while the role of sleep in implicit mechanisms has not been comprehensively characterized so far. There are several factors which affect the appearance of sleep effect, such as the structure, the length and the complexity of sequence being used, the awareness of the sequence, the length of the learning blocks and the offline period. Besides the classical sleep deprivation methods with healthy participants, examining patients with sleep disorders could be a new method of the investigation of the sleep effect which enables us to enrich our knowledge not only about the sleep-dependent memory consolidation but also the cognitive dysfunction related to sleep pathologies. This new line of research can help the development of more effective rehabilitation programs.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Relationship between default mode network and consciousness]


[Neural correlation with consciousness represents a main topic of neuroscience studies. New results of consciousness researches proved that based on a coherent function in between its components the default mode network activity is the condition for awake consciousness. The subject of consciousness is self. Tasks related with the self were proving a high default mode network activity. Using connections inside the network, results which were related with self, could be considered to represent a polymodal integration system are they are participating in fine processing of the highly integrated associative information. It could be a result of the convergence of cognitive binding. There is a strong connection between the level of consciousness and praecuneal activation. It was proved that the network activity is changing during sleeping (normal condition), trauma or under drug induced altered consciousness. The default network activity can be considered as the neural correlate of consciousness. Further researches are warranted to answer the question: is the activity of the network the cause or is just accompanying the development of human consciousness?]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Multiple disruption of the body representation in neglect]


[Background and purpose - Neglect related to the body has many symptoms. We suggest that the various symptoms might be associated with the injuries of different cognitive functions referring to the body, which are caused by lesions of different brain areas. Therefore we investigated the injuries of two functions in a group of patients with neglect (N=10) contrary to patients without neglect (N=10) and healthy controls (N=10). These functions are: perception of body location in external space and the perception of body shape. Methods - We applied a novel method (Body Portraying Method), which is suitable for measuring subjective perception of both body location and body shape. Results - 1. Patients with left neglect perceived their bodies with a significant right shift compared to their real body position. In contrast to this, patients without neglect and healthy controls tended to shift the subjective location of their body to the left. 2. Patients with neglect perceived the shape of their bodies significantly more distorted than both patients without neglect and healthy controls. 3. In case of eight patients with neglect, the symptom of shifted body location to the right and the symptom of body shape distortion appeared together. However, injuries of these two functions dissociated in case of two neglect patients. Conclusions - Both the perception of body location in external space and the perception of body shape might become distorted in neglect. Furthermore, the dissociation of these symptoms supports our suggestion, that they might be associated with the injuries of different functions referring to the body. This result has practical issues as well. At the end of the study we discuss the necessity of appropriate tailored physiotherapy (fitted to the injured function) in the rehabilitation of patients with neglect.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Diagnosis of primary insomnia by actigraphy - Improved results by data selection]

RAJNA Péter, TAKÁCS Johanna

[Study objectives - In spite of the useful information provided by actigraphy in sleep medicine it is still not an independent tool either in the clinical diagnosis or in the follow-up. In the frame of a retrospective study, a simple new method of data reduction was applied with the aim of improving the clinical impact of actigraphy for the diagnosis of primary insomnia. Methods - Actigraphic records with a duration of 1 week produced on 47 subjects who met the inclusion-exclusion criteria. The daily activities during the investigational period were registered by means a self-completed questionnaire. Three parameters (sleep latency, sleep fragmentation and sleep efficiency) and only their three ’worse - as regards insomnia’ daily values were analyzed statistically. The study participants comprised 13 healthy controls, 17 healthy ‘bad sleepers’ and 17 subjects with primary insomnia. Results - The post-hoc tests did not reveal statistically significant difference in the three parameters between the healthy and ‘bad sleeper’ groups, but these two groups differed statistically from the primary insomnia group. Conclusion - The actigraphic analysis of sleep latency, sleep fragmentation and sleep efficacy allows a significant differentiation between subjects with primary insomnia and healthy controls, but not between healthy controls and healthy ‘bad sleepers’. Statistical algorithms indicated ‘models’ for clinically good and bad sleepers. Further studies on large populations are necessary before this method can be introduced in the routine medical care of individuals with primary insomnia.]

All articles in the issue