Clinical Neuroscience

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SZŰCS Anna, MAROSFŐI Miklós, VÁRALLYAY Péter, KAMONDI Anita

OCTOBER 05, 2013

Clinical Neuroscience - 2013;66(09-10)

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Clinical Neuroscience

[The impact of the vitamin D in neurological diseases and neurorehabilitation: from demencia to multiple sclerosis. Part I: The role of the vitamin D in the prevetion and treatment of multiple sclerosis]

SPEER Gábor

[The world-wide incidence of vitamin D deficiency is high, independently of age. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disorder, occuring in those who possess or are exposed to a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the environmental factors associated with the development is vitamin D. Vitamin D is an immunomodulatory agent, its role is verified in many of autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D inhibits IL-6, IL-17 and IL-23 secretions which are crucial in Th1 and Th17 differentiation and also decreases proinflammatorical cytokine production. Moreover it enhances the immunosuppressive IL-10 cytokine secretion and inhibits the T-reg cell development. These cytokines and cells are essential for the pathomechanism of multiple sclerosis. Data have shown, that the vitamin D levels above 100 nmol/l (40 ng/ml) is essential for the prevention of multiple sclerosis. Below this level the vitamin D supplementation is reasonable. In pregnancy, the vitamin D deficiency at the last two semester increases the risk for the multiple sclerosis of the infant. The optimal vitamin D level for multiple sclerosis patients is 100-150 nmol/l (40-60 ng/ml). There is no consensus for the role of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis yet, but until the achieving this, the diagnosis and the treatment of the vitamin D deficiency is crucial for scelrosis multiplex patients and in cases of elevated risk. Data shows, that in patient with multiple sclerosis the normal vitamin D level is suboptimal, however the exact role of vitamin D and doses must be clarified by interventional studies.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Occurence and molecular pathology of low grade gliomas]

MURNYÁK Balázs, CSONKA Tamás, KLEKNER Álmos, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor

[Background - The WHO grade I. and II. low-grade gliomas represent nearly the 15% of all primary brain tumors. These tumours contain clinically, hisologically and molecularly distinct tumor types. According to their histologic characteristic, grade II glial tumours are the diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma subgroups; the ependymal tumors are not included in this study. Methods - In our publication, we analysed the histological diagnosed glioma cases between 2007 and 2011 at our institution. Results - Low-grade gliomas were diagnosed in 127 cases (62 male / 65 female), and the mean ages were 39 years (±20.3). More than half of the cancers were localizated in the frontal lobe, and the second most frequent area was the temporal lobe. Finally, we comlete our report with an overview of major molecular pathways in low-grade gliomas.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Occurence and molecular pathology of high grade gliomas]

MURNYÁK Balázs, CSONKA Tamás, HEGYI Katalin, MÉHES Gábor, KLEKNER Álmos, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor

[Background - Glial tumours represent the most frequent type of primary brain cancers. Gliomas are characterized by heterogeneity that makes the diagnosis, histological classification and the choosing of correct therapy more difficult. Despite the advances in developing therapeutic strategies patients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis; therefore glial tumours represent one of the most important areas of cancer research. There are no detailed data on the epidemiology of gliomas in Hungary. Methods - In the first section of our publication, we analysed the histological diagnosed cases between 2007 and 2011 at the Institute of Pathology, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Centre. We analyzed the incidence of 214 high-grade gliomas by tumor grades, gender, age, and the anatomical localization. Results - The majority of cases were glioblastoma (182 cases), and the remaining 32 cases were anaplastic gliomas. The mean age of patients was 57 years (±16.4), and the male:female ratio was 1.1:1. The most frequent area of tumors was the frontal lobe followed by the temporal, parietal and occipital lobe. We include new findings published recently about glioma patogenesis, molecular pathways, mutant genes and chromosomal regions. We explain briefly the role of selected important genes in glioma genesis and give an update on knowledge provided by modern molecular methods, which could beneficially influence future therapy and the diagnosis of gliomas.]

Clinical Neuroscience

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KOPNICZKY Zsolt

Clinical Neuroscience

[Infection-surveillance experience at a neurological intensive care unit]

CSIMA Zoltán, HRADECZKY Katalin, SIMONNÉ SZAPPANOS Erzsébet, BERECZKI Dániel, SIPOS Ildikó

[Infection-surveillance is an important part of the infection control system serving the protection of patients and healthcare workers as well. The continuous surveillance of health care associated infections is among the most important fields of patient safety and quality management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the health care associated infections among patients at the neurointensive care unit. Moreover, we aimed to identify specific infectionforms and the most frequently occurring pathogens. We performed the study for a half-year according to the HELICSmethod proposed by the National Center of Epidemiology. In this setup we evaluated the infections and risk factors for infection (instrument-use, antibiotic therapy etc.) among the patients who spent at least 48 hours in the neurointensive care unit. During the six-month period, we observed 16 health care associated mono- and polymicrobial infections out of the 88 cases. Mainly Gram-positive pathogens were identified, but we found multidrug-resistant pathogens as well. Clinically diagnosed pneumonia was the most frequent among the infections. These infections were detected by a relatively low microbiological testing rate, which warns to increase sampling frequency to ensure more accurate data on infections. Infection control based on a comparative standardized infection dataset seems to be one of the most important preventive measures.]

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