Clinical Neuroscience

[Cognitive theory of psychotrauma and the medical psychotherapy]


MARCH 10, 2005

Clinical Neuroscience - 2005;58(03-04)



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Clinical neurosciences for efficient treatment - 2nd Live Issue of Clinical Neuroscience/ Ideggyógyászati Szemle]


Clinical Neuroscience



[Pathologically, Binswanger’s disease is subcortical periventricular leucoencephalopathy sparing the U fibers. Clinically it is characterised by executive dysfunction, gait problems, urinary incontinence, pseudobulbar palsy, mood disturbances and dementia. The pathomechanism of Binswanger’s disease is unclear. It is hypothesized that it results from an ischemic-hypoxic injury of the periventricular white matter, which, in turn, can be caused by a sclerotic elongation of the medullary arteries, widening of the perivascular spaces or decreased brain perfusion due to hypotension or heart disease. The symptoms of Binswanger’s disease frequently overlap with those of normal pressure hydrocephalus, vascular parkinsonism and Alzheimer’s disease. A diagnostic criterion of Binswanger’s disease is radiologically demonstrated leukoaraiosis, which, on the other hand, is not equivalent with Binswanger’s disease. A good clinical response after lumbar puncture or shunt implantation might lead to confusion with normal pressure hydrocephalus, which further complicates the clinical diagnosis. It is likely that among the above mentioned disorders there are a number of transitional forms and overlaps, which might be explained by the common pathomechanism of disturbance in cerebrospinal fluid circulation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Supplementary sensory-motor seizures - symptomatology, etiology, and surgical management with illustrative case reports]

HALÁSZ Péter, JUHOS Vera, ERÕSS Loránd, TÓTH Szabolcs, BALOGH Attila, GYÖRGY Ilona, BARSI Péter, KELEMEN Anna, BARCS Gábor

[In the past decade, owing to the advance of epilepsy surgery, growing knowledge has accumulated on the role of the supplementary motor area, described by Penfield and coworkers in the early fifties, in movement regulation and on the characteristics of seizures involving this area. In the Hungarian neurological literature this topic - despite its neurophysiological and practical clinical importance - has been hardly touched. The authors, based on their own experience obtained from surgeries performed within the framework of the "Co-operative Epilepsy Surgery Program", describe the electrophysiological features of this area, its role in movement regulation and the symptoms of epileptic seizures stemmed from or spread onto this area. Using cases as illustrations, they demonstrate the reasoning and various algorithms of the multidisciplinary examination necessary to explore the seizure onset zone and the pathways of seizure spread. Details of the surgical solution are also described.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society - Part I. Scientific background of the posture correction exercise scheme]

GARDI Zsuzsa, FESZTHAMMER Artúrné, DARABOSNÉ Tim Irma, TÓTHNÉ Steinhausz Viktória, SOMHEGYI Annamária, VARGA Péter Pál

[The primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society aims to increase awareness of the need to develop and automatically maintain a biomechanically correct posture for all school children. The biomechanically correct posture is a dynamic balance based on a correct middle position of the pelvis and on muscle balance. In this position three important anatomical points - the left and right anterior superior iliac spines and the upper medial point of the pubic bone - form one frontal plane. From side-view the imaginary weight median of the body crosses the 2nd to 5th lumbar and the 2nd to 5th cervical vertebral bodies. When the muscles involved in posture are in balance, their strength and flexibility are just appropriate for the almost continuous work required against gravity. In case of static and/or dynamic under- or overload tonic muscles become shortened, and phasic muscles become stretched, and are no longer able to work optimally. Since many muscles and muscle parts that are involved in normal posture maintenance are not satisfactorily challenged in regular physical exercises and sport activities, the preventive exercise scheme of the Hungarian Spine Society aimed to involve these rarely used muscles in special strengthening and stretching exercises. The scheme is based on 12 test exercises that assess the strength and flexibility of postural muscles. A person who is able to do all test exercises correctly has no problem with his or her muscle balance. In order to counteract the harm caused by sedentary lifestyle already in childhood, regular use of this posture correction scheme in physical education starting from preschool throughout the school-years is recommended for all children.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Application of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite in Debrecen]


[Introduction - The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) has been recommended by the National Multiple Sclerosis Society as a new clinical outcome measure. It is based on measurements in three clinical dimensions: leg function/ambulation (timed 25-foot walk), arm function (9-hole peg test), and cognitive function (paced auditory serial addition test). Scores on component measures are converted to standard scores (Z-scores) that reflect patient performance. This method has not yet been introduced into routine clinical practice. Patients and method - MSFC calculation was applied to 17 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (age mean: 37.4±10.8 years; duration of the disease: 5.5±4.9 years, EDSS: 2.7±1.4) seen at the neuroimmunological outpatient clinic to evaluate its usefulness and its correlation with the traditionally applied Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and with patient-reported quality of life. Fifteen patients received immunomodulatory treatment (interferon beta and glatiramer acetate). MSFC and EDSS were measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 months, and questionnaires on quality of life were filled in by the patients at 0, 6, 12, 18 months of follow- up. Results - The prospective study confirmed a strong correlation between EDSS and MSFC (Spearman correlation test, p=0.03, 0.004, 0.002, 0.004, 0.0008, 0.002; R=-0.54, -0.66, -0.68, -0.65, -0.73, -0.69) in multiple sclerosis. The MSFC was more sensitive to clinical changes than EDSS. The extent of changes on the two scales correlated only after 18 months (p<0.005, R=-0.65). The arm/hand function was the most sensitive measure for disease progression. There was no correlation between the quality of life and either of the two other clinical parameters. Conclusion - MSFC is a simple method, suitable for followup of multiple sclerosis patients in everyday clinical practice.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Hypertension and nephrology

[About the care of patients with hyperuricaemia and gout]

[This consensus document is intended to provide guidance for the effective and efficient treatment of asymptomatic individuals with high uric acid levels and gout patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]