Clinical Neuroscience

[CATHODAL TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION OVER THE PARIETAL CORTEX MODIFIES FACIAL GENDER ADAPTATION]

VARGA Edina Tímea, ELIF Kaya, ANTAL Andrea, ZIMMER Márta, HARZA Irén, WALTER Paulus, KOVÁCS Gyula

NOVEMBER 30, 2007

Clinical Neuroscience - 2007;60(11-12)

[Previous studies have observed that prolonged adaptation to a face will bias the perception of a subsequent one. This phenomenon is known as figural or face after-effect. Although currently the topic of face adaptation enjoys utmost popularity, we still don't know much about the neural process underlying it. The aim of the present study was to determine, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), how the retinotopically organised primary visual cortex (V1) and higher-level, non-retinotopic right lateral temporo-parietal areas interact with facial adaptation processing. Seventeen healthy subjects recieved 10 min anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation over these areas during a facial adaptation task. Cathodal stimulation of the right temporo-parietal cortex reduces the magnitude of facial adaptation while stimulation over the V1 results in no significant effects. These data imply that mainly lateral temporo-parietal cortical areas play role in facial adaptation and in facial gender discrimination, supporting the idea that the observed after-effects are the result of high-level, configurational adaptation mechanisms.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[HUMAN PRION DISEASES: THE HUNGARIAN EXPERIENCE]

KOVÁCS Gábor Géza, BAKOS Ágnes, MITROVA Eva, MINÁROVITS János, LÁSZLÓ Lajos, MAJTÉNYI Katalin

[Background - Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the most frequent human prion disease. Genetic forms are associated with mutations in the human prion protein gene (PRNP) and thought to comprise 5-15% of cases. Acquired forms include iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The latter is associated with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We recently reported the high incidence of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Hungary. Materials and methods - In the present study we summarize the results of a widened investigation comprising Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases collected in the National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hungary in the last 12 years. We examined the disease forms and their geographical distribution. Results - Our study involved 155 patients. The four major results are as follows: 1. In Hungary we detected only sporadic and genetic forms of human prion disease, while iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease were not observed. 2. The proportion of genetic prion disease (E200K mutation), similarly to Slovakia, is higher than reported worldwide. Our observations indicate that at least every third case is genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The mean incidence of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (0.42/million) is unusually high. Especially the year 2006 was striking when the incidence of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 1.4/million. 3. More than half of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases lack a positive family history. 4. Some counties and the eastern part of Hungary shows elevated incidence of human prion disease. Conclusions - Differences in the geographical distribution may be related to migration and historical relationship with the Slovakian population. Based on the increased incidence of E200K mutation, genetic testing of the PRNP is recommended in all cases with atypical neuropsychiatric disorder or suspicion of prion disease.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[DIFFUSION TENSOR AND FUNCTIONAL MR IMAGING OF SEVERE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY AT LOW MAGNETIC FIELD]

AUER Tibor, SCHWARCZ Attila, EZER Erzsébet, CZEITER Endre, ARADI Mihály, HUDVÁGNER Sándor, JANSZKY József, BÜKI András, DÓCZI Tamás

[Aim of the study - Presentation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) performed at low magnetic field (1 Tesla) in the algorithm of work-up of a patient suffering from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method - DTI and functional MRI (fMRI) were applied at 1 Tesla for visualization of neural pathways and examination of sensory functions of a patient with severe TBI. DTI-measurement was also performed on a healthy patient for comparison. Results - DTI acquired at low magnetic field yielded appropriate visualization of neural pathways. DTI confirmed the results of the clinical and fMRI examinations in the patient suffering from severe TBI. Conclusion - An optimized DTI can be useful in the examination of patients with TBI, moreover, it may also help in the establishment of diagnoses of other central nervous system diseases affecting neuronal pathways. The presented results suggest that DTI of appropriate quality can be performed at low magnetic field.]

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[THE ROLE OF CHRONIC BRAIN HYPOPERFUSION IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE - FACTS AND HYPOTHES]

ZÁDORI Dénes, DATKI Zsolt, PENKE Botond

[In Alzheimer’s disease, which belongs to the neurodegenerative disorders, the ethiopathogenetic role of several risk factors has been proved. A considerable number of them are mainly known as cardiovascular risk factors and can precipitate chronic brain hypoperfusion. Using functional imaging techniques, this hypoperfusion and the resulting hypometabolism become detectable in the watershed areas of the brain as early as in the stage of mild cognitive impairment. Hypoperfusion leads to the degeneration of capillaries in this area causing the deterioration of diffusion. The further reduction of nutrient and oxygen support of neurons is capable to initiate a neurodegenerative process which spreads along the glutamaterg system arising from the neurons of the association cortices. The neuropathological lesions of this neuronal system, such as the neurofibrillary tangles and the β-amyloid plaques, are known to be the characteristic markers of Alzheimer's disease. In our review we present the development of hypoperfusion and its consequences in the watershed areas of the brain and describe the neurodegenerative process of the neuronal system arising from the neurons of the association cortices in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. Considering the previous hypotheses and the neuropathological lesions of Alzheimer's disease we give a new consensus model to characterize the pathomechanism of the disorder.]

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[UNALTERED MRNA EXPRESSION OF CALCITONIN-LIKE RECEPTOR AND RECEPTOR ACTIVITY MODIFYING PROTEINS IN HUMAN ARTERIES IN STROKE AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION]

KAREN Eskesen, TAJTI János, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor, SZOK Délia, VÉCSEI László, LARS Edvinsson

[Calcitonin-like receptor (CL-R) is a functional CGRP1- receptor when complexed with RAMP1 or an adrenomedullin-receptor or when complexed with RAMP2 or RAMP3. This study was carried out 1. to set up a method to examine the relative quantity of mRNA of CL-R, RAMP1, RAMP2 and RAMP3 in human coronary (CA), pulmonary (PA) and middle cerebral arteries (MCA), and 2. to examine the level of mRNA expression in cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The method was validated with respect to the use of postmortem tissue and we compared β-actin and GAPDH as housekeeping genes. There was no time-dependent change in total RNA and level of mRNA for β-actin or GAPDH could be detected in vessels removed from 1 and 5 days post mortem. The expression of β-actin appears lower in coronary artery than in pulmonary artery and middle cerebral artery with no significant difference for GAPDH; both worked well. There were some differences in mRNA expression for CL-R (higher) and RAMP3 (lower) in middle cerebral artery compared to coronary artery and pulmonary artery. There was no significant difference in mRNA for RAMP1 and RAMP2 in the three types of arteries. We did not observe any difference in mRNA for CL-R and RAMPs in arteries from patients with hemorrhagic stroke, arteriosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction when compared to patients without these diagnoses. Thus the mRNA expression seems to be unaltered in these disorders.]

Clinical Neuroscience

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