Clinical Neuroscience

[Book review]

MOLNÁR Gyula

OCTOBER 01, 1985

Clinical Neuroscience - 1985;38(10)

[E. S. Vizi and K. Magyar: Regulation of Transmitter Function: Basic and Clinical Aspects - Akadémiai Kiadó - Budapest, 1984]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Differential predictive validation of disease outcome in endogenous psychoses]

PETHŐ Bertalan, KELEMEN András, TOLNA Judit, KARCZAG István, BORNEMISZA Eszter, BITTER István

[In a controlled follow-up catamnestic study (Budapest 2000) of endogenous psychoses (n=228), predictive factors were measured in relation to five catamnestic factors (including one factor representing pure social adjustment disorders) in the whole patient population, and then differentiated according to different classifications. We found that the predictive role of some factors is inversely related along different disease dimensions, and the predictive significance of many factors is nozo or group-specific, often in contrast to or enriching the predictive significance in the whole patient population. Because of its theoretical and practical significance, we highlight the differential predictive significance of psychosis or abnormal personality trait burden, the small but positive predictive significance of ES treatment, the role of long-term neuroleptic therapy in reducing delirium but increasing inhibition and depression, and the large and differential predictive significance of bipolar type I course. Syndromes of index psychosis are often persistent, but not infrequently predict a polar shift in different groups. We have drawn a network of predictive correlations of the pathological dimensions varying within different disease categories based on path analyses. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Vertebral rheography and arteriography in cases of vertebrobasilar circulation disorders ]

OSZLÁNSZKY Ottó

[The author compares the results of arterial vertebral arteriography in 35 patients with vertebrobasilar circulatory insufficiency secondary to uncovertebral arthrosis with the data of selective arterial vertebral regression using the Pratesi method. The clinical picture of the patients showed symptoms of cervical encephalic syndrome. In 7 patients, arteriography showed no abnormal morphology, pathomechanically considered as a consequence of periarterial autonomic plexus irritation, in 15 patients various forms of atheromalacia, in 8 patients extravascular vascular compression, in 5 patients intravascular vascular stenosis were confirmed by arteriography. Rheography showed abnormal morphology in all cases, with 27 cases showing a marked reduction in circulation during head rotations (1/10 of the original "baseline" circulation), and 5 cases with no reduction in circulation during changes in head position. In 2 cases the basal circulation was very low (below 1/10 of the mean basal circulation of the 35 patients), in 1 case the decrease in relative pulse volume measured/calculated during vertebral artery compression was significant. He concludes from his studies that clinically correlated arterial vertebral rheography is sensitive to circulatory changes due to different morphological and/or functional causes. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Diagnostic significance of the corneo-mandibular reflex]

RÉVÉSZ Tamás, LEEL-ŐSSY Lóránt

[The authors have established the significance of the corneo-mandibular reflex in 62 cases of primary or secondary brainstem lesions and consider it a valuable sign in establishing a localization diagnosis. It is distinguished from the so-called liberation reflexes and, unlike these, the occurrence of this reflex has not been shown to be characteristic in Parkinson's syndrome or senile dementia. In the opinion of the authors, the so-called slow form of the reflex indicates a ponto-mesencephalic lesion, indicating damage to the cortico-bulbar, cortico-reticular connections. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: The mirror inside our brain

KRABÓTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Over the second half of the 19th century, numerous theories arose concerning mechanisms involved in understanding of action, imitative learning, language development and theory of mind. These explorations gained new momentum with the discovery of the so called “mirror neurons”. Rizzolatti’s work inspired large groups of scientists seeking explanation in a new and hitherto unexplored area of how we perceive and understand the actions and intentions of others, how we learn through imitation to help our own survival, and what mechanisms have helped us to develop a unique human trait, language. Numerous studies have addressed these questions over the years, gathering information about mirror neurons themselves, their subtypes, the different brain areas involved in the mirror neuron system, their role in the above mentioned mechanisms, and the varying consequences of their dysfunction in human life. In this short review, we summarize the most important theories and discoveries that argue for the existence of the mirror neuron system, and its essential function in normal human life or some pathological conditions.

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[Dysphagiafelmérések akut stroke-ban]

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[Stroke associated dysphagia can have serious consequences such as aspiration pneumonia. The Hungarian guideline on nutritional therapy for stroke patients recommends dysphagia assessment, as early screening can optimize disease outcome and hospital cost. Thus far, this may be the first study in Hungarian that has documented a systematic review about the available validated dysphagia assessments of acute stroke. Purpose – The aim of this study was to summarize the instrumentally validated bedside dysphagia screening tools for acute stroke patients, which were published in the last twenty years. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of the validation studies, examine their study design, and sample the sub-tests and the diagnostic accuracy of the assessments. A systematic research was carried out of the literature between 2001 and 2021 in eight scientific databases with search terms appropriate to our objectives. Subjects of the study – 652 articles were found and were reduced to eight. We made a comparative analysis of these. The GUSS test reached a high level of sensitivity compared to the others. In our study sample, the prevalence of instrumentally confirmed dysphagia among acute stroke patients was 56.1%. The focus and the composition of the analyzed studies differed and posed problems such as the ambiguity of the concept of dysphagia, the difference in outcome indicators, or the timing of screening. The GUSS test, which offers domestic management, is a suitable tool for the Hungarian clinical use.]