Clinical Neuroscience

[Account on the scientific meeting of the Környey Society in 2008]

JANUARY 20, 2009

Clinical Neuroscience - 2009;62(01-02)

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders: preclinical and clinical findings]

RÁKÓCZI Károly, KLIVÉNYI Péter, VÉCSEI László

[The authors summarized the evidence supporting neuroprotection based on the data available in the literature. In vivo and in vitro studies have indicated that many compounds can decrease neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, protein aggregation, disturbance of Ca2+ homeostasis and compensate the energy impairment. Selegiline, rasagiline, dopamine agonists and other molecules (ubiquinone, kynurenic acid, tocopherol, creatine, glatiramer acetate) exert neuroprotective effects in preclinical studies. Much less clinical data are available regarding neuroprotection in different neurological disorders. In this review, such preclinical and clinical evidences are summarized.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Genetically determined neuromuscular disorders of some roma families living in Hungary (in English language)]

LÁSZLÓ Aranka, MAYER Péter, KÓBOR Jenõ, RÁCZ Katalin, TÁLOSI Gyula, ENDREFFY Emőke, HERCZEGFALVI Ágnes, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor, TISZLAVICZ László, BEREG Edit, KATONA Márta, SZABÓ János, KARCAGI Veronika

[The authors discuss the clinical and molecular genetic aspects of genetically determined neuromuscular disorders of some Roma families living in Hungary. Among the autosomal recessively inherited spinal muscular atrophic (SMA) group, 8 Caucasian children had the typical 7-8 exonal deletions of the SMA gene, but only 2 patients belonged to the Roma population. There was no difference in the molecular genetic findings among the Caucasian and the Roma SMA patients. All of them had 7- 8 exonal deletions of the SMA gene. We wanted to call attention to the founder mutation of the Roma population in 7 patients suffering from congenital myasthenia (CMS) from 3 Roma families. The 1267G deletion for CMS was detected by molecular genetic method. Clinical onset was pubertal and relatively slow progression of specific and phenotypic features for this founder mutation of acetyl-cholin receptor epsylon gene. In 2 patients (sister and brother) the sarcoglycanopathy 2C type C283Q mutation was proven in one Roma family suffering from limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Two out of the three facioscapular-humeral dystrophy (FSHD) Roma families carried 21.8 kb and 18.5 kb alleles in FSHD A1 gene (D4S139). In one family together with prenatal diagnosis founder mutation in FSHD A1 gene was detected, according to the autosomal dominant (AD) inheritence. In (F2) prenatal diagnosis was carried out, 18.5 kb/18.5 kb homozygosity was proven in the fetus, so the pregnancy was interrupted. In the CMS, LGMD and FSHD Roma patients ancient typical Roma founder mutations were found.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Conductive education for children with neurological diseases]

BALOGH Erzsébet, KOZMA Ildikó

[Conductive education, developed by the 40-s last century, spread out in the world in spite the lack of hard scientific evidences for its benefit. There are sorts of cerebral palsies (athetosis, ataxia) in which conductive education might have the unique role to help. In cerebral palsies of other sorts it is much helpful if the disturbance of body scheme and degree of somatomotor neglect are superior to the palsy. Short term results of conductive education are to see in the better movement coordination whilst the long term outcome is the increased activities of daily living.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Measurement of mental fatigability by task related spectral EEG. A pilot study (in English language)]

RAJNA Péter, HIDASI Zoltán, PÁL Iván, CSIBRI Éva, VERES Judit, SZUROMI Bálint

[Background - Task related EEG spectra are promising markers of mental activity. But the cooperation of the patients necessary for the registration limits its application in the neuro-psychiatry. Methods - EEG difference spectra on counting (EDSC) - was developed to detect the effect of a short calculation task on the spectral EEG. The originality of the task situation is a continuous mental work in a very short period of time, while the level of task difficulty is adapted to the patient’s actual mental capacity. While the rest pre-task and the post task EEG sections were compared, the results show the mental “EEG fatigability” caused by the short intensive cognitive activity. The first preliminary results have been demonstrated by a comparative study of two healthy and three patient (probable Alzheimer disease, post-stroke state without mental deficit and mixed type of dementia) groups. Results - Similarly to the findings of other authors, in addition to the differences of the alpha band seen on the temporo-parieto-occipital regions, the frontal localization and the beta band seem to be prominent, too. Demented patients had stronger EEG reactions than post-stroke patients without mental deficits and healthy elder persons had more extensive changes than the younger ones. Conclusions - The test can be considered as indirect marker showing the different mental fatigability in diverse pathological conditions and during the aging process. Effect of therapeutic processes can also be followed based on “key-lock principle”. Standardization of the test is essential for the introduction of EDSC to the every-day routine of clinical neuropsychiatry.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Application of robot hand technique in the course of microneurosurgical operations]

CSÓKAY András, VALÁLIK István, JOBBÁGY Ákos

[Introduction - The aim of this study was to determine whether the new robot hand technique can help to avoid the complication in the course of high precise microneurosurgical operations. Methods - The physical efficacy was measured by tremorometry. The comperative study of the incidence of complications measured the clinical efficacy. Results - The tremors of the operating hand and the number of complications have decreased effectively. Conclusion - The precise level of robots could be available by novel robot hand technique. By this technique the microsurgical work has become more effective.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Interdisciplinary approach of vestibular system impairment]

PONGRÁCZ Endre

[In the first part of this review the definition of vertigo/dizziness was discussed. The major difference between the two signs is the exsistence of the direction, which is specific for vertigo. Dizziness is a frequent complaint in the clinical practice. Its frequency is increasing with advance of age, to intimate the play of declining cognitive process in the pathogenesis of its. The popular health significance of vertigo is in the rowing number of the patients. The onset of the most cases with acute vertigo appears between secundums and minutes so the patients will be provided in circumstances of emergency department. First of all three form schould be take into account: neuronitis vestibularis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Meniere syndrome. Without tipical periferal signs of vertigo, central cause should be searched, principally stroke (lysis possibility). The differential diagnose of the different dizzeness/vertigo forms according to the elapsed time of the onset or congenital and acquired nystagmus was created in tables. The recommendations of the therapy of acute and chronic dizziness/ vertigo syndroms are, lack of results of evidence based trials doubtful. The more often used drugs based on clinical trials are discussed as vinpocetine, betahistine and piracetam. The in vitro and in vivo data suggest that the last molecule is eligible to use both in periferal and central type of vertigo syndroms.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine

DEMIR Fıgen Ulku, BOZKURT Oya

Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]

RAJNA Péter

[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[12th Congress of the Hungarian Society for Parenteral Nutrition]

TALLER András