Clinical Neuroscience

[A CASE OF SCHIZENCEPHALY WITH POLYMICROGYRIA]

LEEL-ŐSSY Lóránt, SZŰCS Iván, ALMÁSI Kálmán

JANUARY 20, 2007

Clinical Neuroscience - 2007;60(01-02)

[A case of extensive bilateral frontotemporal schizencephaly is alleged - more extensively in the left hemisphere - which associated with polymicrogyria. The cortical anomaly was discovered only incidentally by MR examination in a 22 year-old man who suffered from headache due to a mild head trauma. Neurological examination proved to be negative. He had no complaints or symptoms a few weeks later. The developmental anomalies in corticalisation are shortly overviewed in this group together with the possible causing factors. It has been emphasized the importance of the precise intrauterine and/or postpartum differential diagnosis between schizencephaly, porencephaly and other failure in corticalisation.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[APPLICATION OF FUNCTIONAL MR-IMAGES ACQUIRED AT LOW FIELD IN PLANNING OF NEUROSURGICAL OPERATION CLOSE TO AN ELOQUENT BRAIN AREA]

AUER Tibor, SCHWARCZ Attila, JANSZKY József, HORVÁTH Zsolt, KOSZTOLÁNYI Péter, DÓCZI Tamás

[Aim of the study - Presentation of functional MRI performed at low magnetic field (1 Tesla) for planning microsurgical operation in a patient suffering from tumor close to an eloquent brain area. Methods - Microsurgical removal navigated by frameless stereotaxy of an intrinsic tumor located in eloquent area is indicated if speech function is not damaged, i.e. exact localisation and relationship of the tumor and speech area can be defined. Before operation an optimized EPI based 2D sequence was applied to yield functional MR images. At the planning of the operation the paradigm used for the localization of the sensory language cortex contained passive listening to a text. Control investigations were performed one month postoperatively. A specific psychological test, as an additional investigation to estimate the accurate level of the sensory language function, was also conducted. Results - Low resolution (matrix of 64×64) functional MR images visualized sensory speech center and auditory cortex satisfactorily. The scans showed clearly that the Wernicke's region was situated just above the tumor (WHO grade II glioma), and this finding increased the safety of intraoperative localization and reduced the risk of morbidity. Control examinations revealed minimal decrease in sensory language function, however, it was not noticeable for either the patient or her surroundings. Conclusion - Optimized functional MR imaging performed at low magnetic field can support planning of neurosurgical operations and reduce the morbidity of microsurgical interventions.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH LEVETIRACETAM FOR ADULTS WITH EPILEPSY]

BARCS Gábor, SZŰCS Anna

[Objective - A retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy of levetiracetam in the treatment of adult pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Method - Retrospective work up of our treatmentexperiences with 55 pharmacoresistant patients treated with levetiracetam (11 of them on monotherapy) for 6-39 months. Three treatment groups were analysed: idiopathic generalised epilepsy (9 patients); partial epilepsy (30 patients); malignant or malignated epileptic syndromes (16 patients). Result - Seven idiopathic generalised patients (77%) and 5 partial epilepsy patients (16%) became seizure free. One idiopathic generalised epileptic patient, 10 partial epilepsy patients (33%) significantly improved. Six patients (37%) from the group of malignant or malignated epileptic syndromes also significantly improved. Five of the improved idiopathic generalised epilepsy patients and 6 of the improved partial epilepsy patients received levetiracetam monotherapy. Altogether seven patients (12% of the whole population) relapsed after a 4-15 months improved period. Fifteen patients (27%) suffered side effects (mainly somnolence, headache, dizziness and irritability) improving after dose reduction of levetiracetam (generally below 2000 mg pro day). Conclusion - Levetiracetam is an effective, well tolerable, broad-spectrum drug as adjunctive treatment or monotherapy in adult patients unsuccessfully treated with other antiepileptic drugs.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[NONSENSE MUTATION 193C>T OF NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 2 - A NEUROSURGICAL CHALLENGE]

BOBEST Mátyás, TÓTH Csaba, GYURCSÓ Mária, MOLNÁR Mária Judit, GARZULY Ferenc

[A 15 years old male was operated because of incidentally found intercostal schwannoma. Two years later severe cerebellar ataxy and left sided anacusis developed. MRI revealed bilateral vestibularis tumors and multiple cervical intradural extramedullar myelon compressing lesions. After partial resection of the huge left sided cerebello-pontin tumor, histologically schwannoma, and the exstirpation of the multiple cervical meningiomas the patient died three months later due to septic complications. The 24 years old mother had been operated on similar lesions 12 years earlier, after two weeks postoperative period she died. Her 14 years old twins are living, a boy also with bilateral acustic tumours and a girl who is intact. Genetic investigation revealed C>T nonsense mutation at position 193 in the exon 2 of the NF2 gene. This mutation cause premature truncation of the gene protein and is probably in connection with the clinically severe phenotype. Early diagnosis of this type of neurofibromatosis is mandatory concerning the therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[UPDATES IN PRACTICAL NEUROLOGY - I. THE PRINCIPLES OF MODERN LEVODOPA THERAPY IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE]

KLIVÉNYI Péter, VÉCSEI László

[Despite the levodopa is used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease for a long time, recently many questions raised about its clinical use. New issues emerged based on the clinical trials, on latest neuroimaging data and on better understanding the pathomechanism of motor complications. These observations have changed the routine clinical use of levodopa. In this review we summarize the evidences and practical implications of levodopa therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

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[Congress calendar 2007;60(01-02)]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Clonazepam can facilitate sensorimotor functional MRI examinations in status epilepticus during sleep]

[Functional magnetic resonance imaging examinations became an integral part of epilepsy surgery workup. In the pediatric population these examinations are usually carried out in full anesthesia, however in some forms of epilepsy, e.g. electrical status epilepticus in sleep, anesthesia could jeopardize the success of the examination. Here, we show on the example of an eight-year-old polymicrogyric epileptic child, that clonazepam can help suppressing the epileptic activity during propofol anesthesia, so it could facilitate performing passive sensorimotor functional MRI in such a case. Furthermore, among the methodological issues addressed, this case provides evidence for a post-hemispherotomy like functional redistribution of sensorimotor activations to the unaffected hemisphere in a case of childhood epilepsy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]

VASTAGH Ildikó, SZŐCS Ildikó, OBERFRANK Ferenc, AJTAY András, BERECZKI Dániel

[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

NÉMETH Klára Zsófia, SZÛCS Anna , VITRAI József , JUHÁSZ Dóra , NÉMETH Pál János , HOLLÓ András

We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.