Clinical Neuroscience

[12th Annual Meeting of the Hungarian Society of Neuroradiology]

MARCH 15, 2004

Clinical Neuroscience - 2004;57(03-04)

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Report from the UEMS/European Board of Neurology Meeting]

SZIRMAI Imre

Clinical Neuroscience

[Newer approaches in self-theories]

TÉNYI Tamás

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neuroprotection in brain ischemia - doubts and hopes]

ZÁDOR Zsolt, BENYÓ Zoltán, LACZA Zsombor, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor, HARKÁNY Tibor

[In ischaemic stroke the two major potential therapeutic strategies are aimed at either improving cerebral blood flow or directly interacting with the cytotoxic cascade - a large body of evidence gained from animal studies is in support of them. In clinical trials direct neuroprotection by blocking the neurotoxic cascade remained ineffective, although there are several clinical trials still in progress. We summarize the experimental data and present the results of clinical trials and also discuss why so many drugs, which were effective in animal studies, failed in human trials. It is emphasized, that 1. in most animal studies the reduction of infarct size, i.e. the amount of saved penumbral tissue, was the outcome measure, whereas neurological function remained unassessed; 2. the recovery of intellectual performance and higher cortical functions are of major importance in the future quality of life in stroke victims; however, it is impossible to examine these parameters appropriately in animal studies; 3. in many clinical trials the patient population was rather heterogenous and low in number, the study protocol was not optimal and the critical analysis of the subacute and chronic phase was lacking or insufficient. We present the major experimental stroke models, discuss their similarities, differencies and limitations as compared to the human pathophysiological processes. The pitfalls of extrapolating data from animal studies to clinical practice are also summarized. The complex network of functional and morphological intercellular connections, the long timescale of neurotoxic and reparative events and the lessons learned from clinical trials suggest, that the use of drug combinations (therapeutic cocktails) targeting multiple steps of the neurotoxic cascade would hopefully result in more effective treatment of ischaemic stroke. Strategies to facilitate brain plasticity and regeneration is an additional promising tool to enhance recovery in brain ischaemia.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Effect lesions of extrahypothalamic brain structures on testicular functions in rats with special emphasis on asymmetry]

BANCZEROWSKI Péter, GERENDAI Ida

[Introduction - The aim of our studies was to investigate the involvement of extrahypothalamic brain structures in the control of testicular functions with special emphasis on the effect of right- and left-sided structures. Material and method - We performed lesion of the insular cortex, the amygdala, interrupted part of nerve fibers to and from the insular cortex, and cut the major commissural pathway of the brain the corpus callosum in adult male rats and studied the effect of the interventions on testicular steroidogenesis, serum testosterone and gonadotrop hormone concentrations. Results - Following lesion of the insular cortex on the right side serum testosterone level and steroidogenesis of the testes decreased (in the case of the left testis the difference was significant). Similar lesion on the left side did not change the parameters studied. Both right- and left-sided lesion induced a significant increase in serum LH concentration. The effect was more pronounced after right-sided lesion. Interruption of nerve fibers above the amygdala by a paramedian sagittal knife cut on the right or on the left side resulted in opposite effect on testicular steroidogenesis: right-sided intervention increased while left-sided one reduced testosterone secretion. Only left-sided cut influenced (decreased) serum testosterone level. There was no changes in LH concentration. Both right- and left-sided lesion of the amygdala induced a significant decrease in basal testosterone secretion in vitro of both testes and in serum testosterone level. However, serum LH concentration decreased only after left-sided surgery. Interruption of the corpus callosum in animals with leftsided orchidectomy induced a significant rise in steroidogenesis of the remaining (right) testis. Both sham surgery and callosotomy combined with left orchidectomy resulted in a significant increase in serum FSH level. Conclusion - Results of our studies suggest that extrahypothalamic brain structures and interventions influence endocrine functions of the testis through the hypothalamohypophyseal- testicular axis and by a direct neural route.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neurological aspects of some sleep disorders]

SZŰCS Anna

[My aim is to examine the relation between some sleep disorders and neurological diseases; to analyse their mutual interactions in order to achieve new practical data for clinical use. In the theoretical part I summarise some main points of sleep physiology concentrating on the associations of sleep regulation and neurological diseases. In my examinations, besides clinical methods, the most important tools used are sleep analyses performed by polysomnography and MESAM IV as well as brain imaging methods. To assess clinical state of my stroke patients I utilised NIH Stroke Scale. I found pathological sleep apnoea frequency in more than half of the patients in any type (bleeding/infarction) of acute stroke. In a prospective study, sleep apnoea parameters remain permanent during 3 months in the ischaemic group; on the other hand, sleep apnoea improves during follow up after brain haemorrhages. I showed pathological sleep apnoea frequency in myasthenia gravis among male patients without daytime respiration complaint. I looked for the link between the mechanism of the sleep disorder and the underlying organic lesion in two cases. In this analyses I took into account the function of the affected structure in sleep regulation. I found a basal forebrain tumour, affecting sleep regulating centres underlying severe insomnia and I suggest a neurovascular compression of the lateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus being the reason of sleep related painful erection, a parasomnia of unknown origin.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Advanced Parkinson’s disease characteristics in clinical practice: Results from the OBSERVE-PD study and sub-analysis of the Hungarian data]

TAKÁTS Annamária, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, VÉCSEI László, KLIVÉNYI Péter, DÉZSI Lívia, ZÁDORI Dénes, VALIKOVICS Attila, VARANNAI Lajos, ONUK Koray, KINCZEL Beatrix, KOVÁCS Norbert

[The majority of patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease are treated at specialized movement disorder centers. Currently, there is no clear consensus on how to define the stages of Parkinson’s disease; the proportion of Parkinson’s patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease, the referral process, and the clinical features used to characterize advanced Parkinson’s disease are not well delineated. The primary objective of this observational study was to evaluate the proportion of Parkinson’s patients identified as advanced patients according to physician’s judgment in all participating movement disorder centers across the study. Here we evaluate the Hungarian subset of the participating patients. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional, non-interventional, multi-country, multi-center format in 18 countries. Data were collected during a single patient visit. Current Parkinson’s disease status was assessed with Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts II, III, IV, and V (modified Hoehn and Yahr staging). Non-motor symptoms were assessed using the PD Non-motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS); quality of life was assessed with the PD 8-item Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (PDQ-8). Parkinson’s disease was classified as advanced versus non-advanced based on physician assessment and on questions developed by the Delphi method. Overall, 2627 patients with Parkinson’s disease from 126 sites were documented. In Hungary, 100 patients with Parkinson’s disease were documented in four movement disorder centers, and, according to the physician assessment, 50% of these patients had advanced Parkinson’s disease. Their mean scores showed significantly higher impairment in those with, versus without advanced Parkinson’s disease: UPDRS II (14.1 vs. 9.2), UPDRS IV Q32 (1.1 vs. 0.0) and Q39 (1.1 vs. 0.5), UPDRS V (2.8 vs. 2.0) and PDQ-8 (29.1 vs. 18.9). Physicians in Hungarian movement disorder centers assessed that half of the Parkinson’s patients had advanced disease, with worse motor and non-motor symptom severity and worse QoL than those without advanced Parkinson’s disease. Despite being classified as eligible for invasive/device-aided treatment, that treatment had not been initiated in 25% of these patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine

DEMIR Fıgen Ulku, BOZKURT Oya

Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]

RAJNA Péter

[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[ABSTRACTS OF HUNGARIAN AUTHORS’ ARTICLES PUBLISHED ABROAD]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Professional Guideline of the Hungarian Society of Hypertension – Guidelines of Hypertension Care 11th Amended and Completed Edition.]

FARSANG Csaba, JÁRAI Zoltán