Ca&Bone

[RANKL-specific denosumab in the treatment of osteoporosis - Possible adverse effects of long-term use]

TANKÓ László

APRIL 15, 2009

Ca&Bone - 2009;12(01)

[According to the results of a recent clinical trial, the antiresorptive effect of a single 60-mg injection of denosumab, a monoclonal antibody specific to RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand) substantially exceeds the effect of alendronate (70 mg weekly). Despite these differences, 1-year increases in bone density at the lumbar spine are virtually identical for both agents. The author summarizes experimental and clinical observations illustrating potential consequences of osteoclast deficiency and a constantly low rate of bone resorption for osteoblast function, bone mineralization, bone quality parameters, and mechanical properties, which all may have important implications for bone fragility. These observations also raise the question whether treatment efficiency is truly improved by aggressively pushing the limits of antiresorptive action.]

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Ca&Bone

[The role of physiotherapy/therapeutic exercise in the treatment of osteoporotic hip fractures]

MAKOVICSNÉ Landor Erika, KOLTAI Endréné

[The authors briefly present the role of the physiotherapist in the treatment of osteoporosis. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of locomotion system problems is analyzed. The authors’ specific focus is the complex physiotherapeutic treatment of osteoporotic hip fractures. They propose a prevention program involving locomotion exercises for the prevention of falls. Analyzing the physiotherapists’ activities, the authors describe the most important aspects of patient education and patient information.]

Ca&Bone

[Significance of quantitative ultrasound bone densitometry and its introduction into pediatric bone medicine]

HOSSZÚ ÉVA, HAZAY Máté, LIPTOVSZKY Janka

[INTRODUCTION - Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) examination of the bones provides information about not only bone mineral mass but also its quality. Adaptation of the method to the continuous growing of body size allowed its pediatric use. However, for introduction into routine use, a normal reference range in healthy children has to be established. The primary aim of this study was to establish the Hungarian reference range for QUS of the bone - in both genders and across a wide range of ages. As a secondary aim, QUS and the bone density were compared to internationally accepted data to comparatively determine correlations of specific QUS measurements to photon absorption based values. SUBJECTS AND METHODS - Measurement was performed on the calcaneus by Achilles Insight (Lunar, WI) device. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was measured using the Double X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) device DPX-L (Lunar, WI). Latter was also used to measure total body calcium content. Measurements were performed in 154 healthy boys and girls aged 5 to 18 years. We analyzed data as a function of age, and correlated results of he two types of measurement. RESULTS - Gender-specific reference ranges for normally developing children of the above ages were built up for Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and Speed of Sound (SOS). BUA showed the best correlation to BMD. SOS and Stiffness Index (SI) derived from BUA and SOS, correlated weaker to BMD, consonantly with the fact that SOS reflects bone elasticity (quality) rather than bone mineral mass. CONCLUSION - These newly constructed normal ranges can provide a basis of performing pediatric bone examinations using QUS, which is less expensive and more mobile.]

Ca&Bone

[Dear Readers and Colleagues!]

HORVÁTH CSABA

Ca&Bone

[Denosumab - pharmacokinetic and clinical evidences]

MÉSZÁROS SZILVIA

[Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL modifying bone resorption in a rapid, sustained and reversible way. In postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density, denosumab 60 mg every 6 months increased mineral density, and reduced bone turnover. In postmenopausal women, it reduced the risk of vertebral, hip, and non-vertebral fractures. Increase in body mass index and reduction in bone turnover was more pronounced with denosumab than with alendronate. In patients who were switched from alendronate to denosumab, positive effects on bone were more pronounced than in those continuing alendronate. Denosumab was safe and well tolerated, and it holds the promise of becoming an efficacious therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis.]

Ca&Bone

[Rehabilitation of patients with osteoporotic bone fractures]

BORS Katalin

[Consequences of osteoporotic bone fractures are increased mortality, decreased quality of life, and increased direct and indirect costs. After the assessment of remaining function and the level of independence, the goal of rehabilitation is to reach the highest level of function and independence possible, thus decreasing morbidity and mortality, improving the overall quality of life, and decreasing costs.]

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[Biochemical processes of the bone in patients treated with clodronate for metastatic prostate cancer]

GERVAIN Mihály, BEZZEGH Attila, PREKOPP Gábor, VANIK Miklós, FÉL Pál, VARGA Béla, BORSI László, PÁSZTOR Imre, KORÁNYI LÁSZLÓ, PINTÉR Erzsébet

[INTRODUCTION - The bone remodelling process of 81 patients with metastatic prostate cancer was analyzed and correlated to PSA levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The patients were recruited from 9 collaborating urology departments. Levels of β-CrossLaps, BALP, urine calcium and urine phosphate were measured. All patients were treated identically (TUR plus an LH-RH analogue or MAB), according to GCP guidelines. After the appearance of metastasis, the patients also received a bisphosphonate compound (clodronate). RESULTS - Bone degradation and formation showed a correlation both in living and deceased patients, indicating that the two processes are not independent. A progressive decrease in the PSA level was associated with a decrease in the β-CrossLaps level. CONCLUSION - In addition to PSA, β-CrossLaps and BALP, two markers of bone metabolism, might prove good predictors of metastasis formation and of response to therapy. Evaluation of the markers relative to agedependent osteoporosis can further improve their predictive value.]

Ca&Bone

[Significance of quantitative ultrasound bone densitometry and its introduction into pediatric bone medicine]

HOSSZÚ ÉVA, HAZAY Máté, LIPTOVSZKY Janka

[INTRODUCTION - Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) examination of the bones provides information about not only bone mineral mass but also its quality. Adaptation of the method to the continuous growing of body size allowed its pediatric use. However, for introduction into routine use, a normal reference range in healthy children has to be established. The primary aim of this study was to establish the Hungarian reference range for QUS of the bone - in both genders and across a wide range of ages. As a secondary aim, QUS and the bone density were compared to internationally accepted data to comparatively determine correlations of specific QUS measurements to photon absorption based values. SUBJECTS AND METHODS - Measurement was performed on the calcaneus by Achilles Insight (Lunar, WI) device. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was measured using the Double X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) device DPX-L (Lunar, WI). Latter was also used to measure total body calcium content. Measurements were performed in 154 healthy boys and girls aged 5 to 18 years. We analyzed data as a function of age, and correlated results of he two types of measurement. RESULTS - Gender-specific reference ranges for normally developing children of the above ages were built up for Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA) and Speed of Sound (SOS). BUA showed the best correlation to BMD. SOS and Stiffness Index (SI) derived from BUA and SOS, correlated weaker to BMD, consonantly with the fact that SOS reflects bone elasticity (quality) rather than bone mineral mass. CONCLUSION - These newly constructed normal ranges can provide a basis of performing pediatric bone examinations using QUS, which is less expensive and more mobile.]

Clinical Neuroscience

The etiology and age-related properties of patients with delirium in coronary intensive care unit and its effects on inhospital and follow up prognosis

ALTAY Servet, GÜRDOGAN Muhammet, KAYA Caglar, KARDAS Fatih, ZEYBEY Utku, CAKIR Burcu, EBIK Mustafa, DEMIR Melik

Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.